Ang Republika Federal sg Kabisay-an (The Federal Republic of the Visayas)

Historical Facts obviously omitted or deliberately hidden in our School History Books
(Source: History Reborn"The Federal Republic of the Visayas" -by: dinggol a.divinagracia*June 12, 2007)

*That Spain had already formally surrendered to the Federal Republic of the Visayas even before Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed Philippine President in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899. That our Independent Visayan Republic, had never been under the authority and jurisdiction of Aguinaldo's "Katagalogan" Republic in Luzon.

excerpted: "...A paper written by Jose Manuel Velmonte, a research associate at the UP Third World Studies Center, found that the Visayan revolutionary elites not only had sophisticated political ideas but also resented attempts by Malolos to assert its authority. A Tagalog military expedition sent by Malolos to Panay to assert its presence was met with hostility. The Luzon force led by Generals Ananias Diocno and Leandro Fullon was regarded by the Visayan revolutionaries, led by the Visayan supremo, Gen. Martin Delgado, as an ''invasion'' force ..." (Source: Inquirer-1999- 06-13 "View of revolt in provinces spurs revision" By: Amando Doronila)

According to Dr. Luis C.Dery, an eminent Filipino Scholar: "Expounding the extent of Aguinaldo's Philippine Army; the Bangsamoro nation's Mindanao, Sulu, and the rest of its islands never fell under Aguinaldo's politico-military control and sovereignty. In fact as late as August 1898 much of northern Luzon, southern Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao remained outside of the control of Aguinaldo's Republic. Thus, several military expeditions were sent to these places to bring' them to recognize the First Philippine Republic."

*That the 1898 Treaty of Paris preliminaries, should not have included territories of the sovereign "Visayan Nation"; the confederation of both the Central and Western Visayas Cantonal Governments by virtue of Spain's formal surrender prior to this U.S. and Spain treaty of peace (Paris) and the $20-million buy-out. Spain had no more legal rights to sell. In legal parlance "nemodat quod non habet” -meaning “you cannot give what is not yours”.

This diplomatic "Faux pas" that was supposed to be officially consummated and became legal and internationally binding only on APRIL 11, 1899 should, or rather must be rectified.
*June 12, 1898 -Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite --but never won the war against Spain, as explained in the infamous betrayal --the "Mock Battle of Manila of August 13, 1898".

*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)

excerpted: "...These two nations, from a purely legal point of view, are COMPLETELY LEGITIMATE UNTIL TODAY. This could imply that the Manila-based Tagalista-oriented Unitarian central government of the Philippines in the Visayas and Mindanao is an Occupational Government, that ultimately originated from an invalid Treaty of Paris...."

Dr. Jose P. Dacudao; National President -Save Our Languages thru Federalism Foundation (SOLFED), Inc.

*July 4, 1946 -The United States of America granted Philippine Independence on a silver platter with strings attached.

"True Independence could never be just self-proclaimed nor bestowed upon, it has to be won and duly achieved with dignity" -- dinggol araneta divinagracia (Founder: Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network ..Dec. 25, 2005)

*A lover of nature and reform activities by profession; a genealogist and environmentalist by avocation. A Cooperative Movement advocate, history buff and an amateur "newbie" writer)

"It is rather speculative as it is without basis of history if we mean of "history" is that which had been written for us by the "tutas" or lackeys of our colonial and imperial masters.." -- Benjie Evicner Estuche (INM Co-Founder)

The Cooperative Movement-"It is not the best way, it is the onlyway"..
Join the Last Laugh with us!

*When Christopher Columbus said that the world is round, people asked -What? and then they laughed.

*When the Wright brothers said they'll fly and soar the skies, people asked -How? and then they laughed.

*When Jules Verne wrote someday man could travel below the seven seas and shall walk on the moon, people asked - When? and then they laughed.

*When John the Baptist prophesied the coming of the Messiah, people asked -Who? and then they laughed.

*When the Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network announced its mission and vision, people did not even bother to ask, What? How? When? or Who? --They just laughed and laughed. *People are still laughing, ...but the laughter is fading!

ang inyo alagad... sa guihapon ...dinggol a. divinagracia~~~

email address:

To join! As a start, visit FACEBOOK: Ilonggo Nation Movement website .. (Non-ilonggos who share our advocacy are welcome)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)
*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)
Ergo! we won our battle-scarred freedom and legitimate independence and became a sovereign nation. The "First" Republic in the whole of Asia, but was nipped-in-the bud by the ugly Americans. A diplomatic faux pas, a political blunder and a travesty of history! --dinggol.d~~~


Claim Your Birth Right!

*Estado Federal de Bisayas*

*Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network, precursor of the Ilonggo Nation Global Federation*

“To appreciate where you are now, you should know where you came from.”

============ ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= ========

Sunday, December 14, 2008


To all concerned:


Just recently my internet access has become relatively normal, after about nine months under constant "problematic" condition.

Therefore, "Ang Pungsod Ilonggo" --the Ilonggo Nation Movement's Newsletter shall now proceed with it's internet issue and shall initiate in due time the hard copy version.

Meanwhile, here is a belated article on my trip back "home" sometime ago.

We hope afore-mentioned publications shall continue regularly.

Ang inyo alagad sa guihapon,

dinggol araneta divinagracia~~~
(Founder: The Ilonggo Nation Movement-Dec. 25, 2005)


On February 25, 2008 --after about a decade in absentia, my flight safely touched-down in Cabatuan, Iloilo and I was impressed with the new Iloilo International class airport. An ilonggo dream comes true!

I - Farewell to the Matriarchs

At noontime, I arrived in Molo "Santa Ana " Church just when the final memorial rites were about to begin. My sisters and "twice-over" first cousins obliged me to deliver the eulogy during the Requiem Mass, which I did impromptu.

Thereafter, the joint interment followed in our modest family mausoleum at the Molo Catholic Cemetary in Iloilo City, Philippines.

And so, our dearly beloved matriarchs were laid to their eternal rest.

*Adela Locsin Araneta de Divinagracia (August 4, 1914 -February 23, 2008)
*Consuelo Parcon Divinagracia de Araneta (May 18,1919-February 20,2008)

On behalf of our family, I sincerely express our gratitude to all those who have shared their sentiments with us --when Mama Adela and Mama Connie joined our Papa Joe and Papa Turing in the kingdom of their Creator, where there is no more death but only eternal joy.

Salamat gid! Sa tanan nga nagbuylog sa amon kalisud sadtong mga panahon...

From the Children:

*Ma. Lina (Marlyn)....................*Concha & Rey
*Carmeling & Junior...................*Agnes & Lando
*Dinggol & Lilia......................*Tony & Maridel
*Susan & Erning.......................*Inday Ling & Irwin
*Boy & Marilu......................*Inday Ting & Jessie
*Marcia & Boy.........................*Inday Bing & David
*Bino & Soling........................*and the Grandchildren

II - Padayon ang Hublag Ilonggo
*The Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM)*

Confucius once said: "A long journey begins with the first step".

It has been said; that something as small as a flutter of a butterfly's wing, can ultimately cause a typhoon halfway around the world.

The long overdue vacation back home, afforded me the chance to personally "eyeball" for the first time with several enthusiastic INM members and sympathizers in Panay and Negros.

Likewise, with four others from abroad who just came over, curious to meet me personally --to discuss on how to concretize INM's course of action in furtherance with the Movement's advocacy presently via cyberspace.

Important issues were discussed and thoroughly deliberated and relevant matters were seriously considered during the "Low Profile" conference held somewhere in Bacolod City.

INM members present, who belong to local media, eager for a "Scoop" --were advised to refrain from covering the historic event since the public at-large; due to limited internet access within WV area, might not fully comprehend INM's agenda for now. And our noble objectives could be misconstrued, even jeopardized.

However, in due time after the printed (hard) copy of "Ang Pungsod Ilonggo" INM Newsletter begins in circulation "Gratis et Amore", all responsible tri-media practitioners shall be properly entertained.

Thereafter, ang aton mga kasimanwa sa Kabisay-an Nakatungdan, shall be able to learn the "true" history of the Ilonggo Nation; be guided accordingly to actively participate in the preservation of our rich cultural heritage and abundant natural resources; and be emboldened, to fight fearlessly against the "Ogres" of society responsible for the maladies that now confronts our people.

Padayon Kita! Wala Punaw!

Today: the Ilonggo Nation...Tomorrow: A Federal Filipino Nation!

III - Highlights of my Trip


After the usual post memorial activities, I proceeded to Aklan upon invitation of primo Greg Montinola Sanson for his natal day celebration in their family owned beach hotel-resort. A brief stop-over in Kalibo, enabled me to clarify some issues with several INM sympathizers waiting at the bus terminal and who later drove me to Malay's Caticlan Pier for Boracay.

A nostalgic reunion with other guests in the island resort --of long lost kins and friends; also meeting new acquaintances was a memorable experience.

Surprisingly, I met an avid "Ang Pungsod Ilonggo" eNewsletter reader. He was the jolly Manila Lawyer "Pompoy", scion of the illustrious Dinglasan Clan of Capiz, who "stole the show" with his songs and dancing style. His contemporaries were the TV dancing "Gurus" of the yesteryears; Chito Feliciano and Archie Lacson.

Thanks! Primo Greg and Prima Marilou Tirol-Sanson for your very generous hospitality. And kudos to the staff for job well done.


I visited the towns of Pavia, Sta. Barbara, New Lucena, Dumangas and Cabatuan to meet INM members and sympathizers.

Sta. Barbara was of course, the site of the historic "Cry of Freedom" by Visayan Revolucionarios on November 17, 1898.

While Cabatuan, was the last seat of the embattled Federal Visayan Government that still continued to function while fighting U.S. invasion forces against all odds during the turn of the last century. The Ilonggo leaders ignored the decree abolishing the Federal Republic of the Visayas issued by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo on April 27, 1899 since they were not under his jurisdiction..

In Iloilo City, informal meetings were held with several NGO's and student groups; likewise, with several active and retired police and military officers.

More notably, with environmentalist Melvin Purzuelo --Head of Western Visayas Green Peace and Convenor of Responsible Ilonggos for Sustainable Eneregy (RISE) and Rodelen Paccial of the Western Visayas State University. Salamat! utod Melvin for the groups' laudable initiative after Typhoon Franks devastation. And to utod "Toto Rod" for that logical suggestion, it's well taken...

(Negros Occidental)

An absence in Silay City for a very long time has made personal contact with relatives mutually more touching. I was deeply elated to learn that many kins and acquaintances are INM members and/or sympathizers.

I was able to confirm from elders, thru old documents the role of the "Locsins" during the 1898 Revolution in Negros and Panay:

*That Gen. Leandro de la Rama Locsin --was Alcalde Municipal and Head "Comite de Silay" under the "Comite Revolucionario Zona Norte Negros Occidental" led by Gen. Aniceto Ledesma Lacson; whose members also included: Simon Lizares, Jose Ledesma, Nicolas Golez Coloso, Dr. Lope de la Rama and Melecio Severino-Secretary.

*That Gen. Leandro Locsin Fullon, the Revolutionary hero of Antique Province --was the son of Justo Fullon and Justa Locsin. His siblings were named Baltazara, Luisa and Jose. Gen. Fullon's daughter in Manila married Roberto Pacificador of the "Rentas Internas".

*That Dr. Vicente Armada Locsin of Janiuay, Iloilo acted as Confidential Intelligence Emissary with the Central Revolutionary Committee of Iloilo based in "Parian" now Molo.

The Committee was headed by Don Raymundo Angulo Melliza with Gen. Pablo Soriano Araneta, a Physician-Surgeon; Don Francisco Felipe Villanueva, Gen. Angel Corteza; Don Ramon Avancena and Don Francisco Soriano as members.

Later, Dr. Vicente A. Locsin married Dna Trinidad Teves and settled permanently in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental.

During my stay in Talisay City, Joel D. Liboon related to me that his great Grandpa Alfonso Garcia Liboon, served as the first Northern Negros Supervising Public School Teacher during the early American regime. While other family members fought under "Papa Isio" Sigobeyla against U.S. forces in Murcia and over the hills of Negros.

Utod "Joel" was the Charter President of the Talisay City (Host) Lions Club in Negros Occidental. Presently, he is District Deputy of the Knights of Columbus for V-83 (Whole Visayas) and a past Grand Knight of the K of C.

Also in Talisay, I talked to "Caloy" Claparols Balcells, a great grandson of erstwhile Negros Presidente Gen. Aniceto L. Lacson regarding some historical family matters. His branch of the family who participated during our 1993 first Araneta family grand reunion in Iloilo City was quite impressive.

In Bacolod City, Hansy Alojado, a young faculty member of De La Salle University was "all smiles" when we met for the first time. He is an ardent ilonggo martial arts practitioner. Yes! "Utod Hansy" --- "Kali" preceded Arnis de Mano.

To my "Big Time" former classmate Renier Geroche and family --Salamat gid! for your very generous hospitality. The food and spirits in that more affluent Japanese Restaurant was excellent.

The bemoustached Renier, an amateur golf enthusiast is presently the District Governor of Rotary Club International for Visayas and Mindanao in the Philippines.

I also met Jimmy Araneta of Bago City --one of the five "Jimmy A's" he jokingly said. He is the grandson of Col. Jaime Sarmiento Araneta of the Negros Revolutionary Forces, the son of Gen. Juan Araneta y Torres. The imposing mounted statue of "Tan Juan" in Bago City Plaza is a revered historical landmark.

Salamat! Jimmy for extending best wishes from "Primo Saming". Dr. Samson Araneta Gonzaga is the President of the Gen. Juan Araneta Family Association, Inc. based in Bago City, Negros Occidental.

Likewise, for the first time I met a grandson of Dionisio "Papa Isio" Sigobeyla of Cauayan, who was kind to allow me take photo shots of the original "anting-anting" (amulet) worn by the forgotten Negros revolutionary hero and patriot.

"Papa Isio" a "Babaylan", declared himself head of the Negros Republic and continued the struggle for freedom for eight more years fighting U.S. forces after Gen. Aniceto Lacson -President of the Negros Island government surrendered to the American invaders.

(Negros Oriental)

In Guihulngan, Ben Bacalso Ricarte told me that the mother of Ilokano revolutionary leader Gen. Artemio "Vibora" Ricarte (who never pledged allegiance to the U.S.) was from Mambusao, Capiz. This I have to check.

Rey Serion of Vallehermoso, great grandson of Don Diego de la Viña informed me that "Don Diego" had three daughters, who married a Serion, a Morales and a Villegas. He also said the historical marker in his honor was put up in Dumaguete City only very recently.

Don Diego de la Viña, a Manila born Spanish-Chinese mestizo who married a wealthy Ilongga,  owned large tracts of land in Negros Island including Hacienda Vallehermoso in Guihulngan. He led  the revolucionarios who defeated the Spanish authorities in Dumaguete City. (As contained in "A Chronology: The Ilonggo Nation" first posted in INM website on December 25, 2005).

It should also be noted, that the Bacolod City historical marker commemorating Spain's formal surrender to the Negros cantonal government was also erected in Bacolod City only after 109 years on November 6, 2007 ---after the afore-mentioned INM article was published. The Negros Occidental Provincial Information Office under the late Gov. Joseph Maranon acknowledged INM's article contribution.

Unfortunately, however, I noticed the National Historical Institute (NHI) plaque only narrated the Spanish Forces capitulation under Col. Isidro de Castro, Negros Politicol-Military Governor; and not that the formal surrender document (Acta de Capitulacion) was authorized by the last duly constituted Spanish authority in the Philippine archipelago...Governor-General Don Diego de los Rios.

Due to previous Iloilo scheduled appointments and time constraints, my Dumaguete City trip was cancelled.

(Back to Iloilo City)

I enjoyed a sumptuous "Comida" together with Manang Eva Araneta-Serra in the "Swiss Chalet" of the Loring-Gay ancestral home fronting University of San Agustin where my "habla español" almost ran-out.

Our gracious hostess, Dña. Amparo Gay Loring de Hernandez was enthusiastic to discuss with me early family genealogy, due to proddings by her children about their maternal great grandma's (Trinidad) side of the familia. The feeling was mutual, since the subject ancestor was the sister of (Paz) my very own maternal great grandma. The third sister Candelaria, married Francisco Tejador Cacho, patriarch of the Cacho Hermanos.

Moreover, I was also eager to hear her testimonies about Iloilo historical events directly involving her close family members. Tita Amparing confirmed that the last Iloilo Spanish "Alcalde Mayor" was Jose Ma. Gay, her mother Concha's brother and not her "abuelo" Don Vicente Gay as portrayed in some articles and historical accounts.

On December 23, 1898; To avert further bloodshed --Iloilo "Alcalde-Mayor" Jose Ma. Gay y Soriano accepted Spain's banner and official sabre, symbol of authority relinquished by the last duly constituted Spanish Governor-General in "Islas Filipinas", Don Diego de los Rios for formal surrender to leaders of the approaching victorious Ilonggo revolucionarios.

The committee for the surrender was negotiated by the members of the revolutionary council, namely: Jovito Servando Yusay, Ramon Avanceña, Francisco Felipe Villanueva with Francisco Ditching Soriano and Gen. Pablo Soriano Araneta as requested by the Alcalde-Mayor being his first cousins. Also present was Don Juan de Leon, who was later appointed first Presidente-Ciudad de Iloilo of the Estado Federal de Bisayas that replaced Jose Ma. Gay.

This was the day prior to Don Diego's departure to Spain via Zamboanga together with the Negros and Cebu Politico-Military Governors; Col. Isidro de Castro and Gen. Adolfo Montero respectively.

Madamo man nga salamat! to Cecile Campos-Jarantilla for my favorite dish "Lengua Estofada" at the cozy Montelibano Restaurant in Tabucan, Mandurriao. Likewise, to Tita Emma Esteban-Campos for copies of old family documents and photos she entrusted to me.

The amiable Cecile introduced me to Fr. Calixto Enojo in his Lapaz home where we talked about history for hours. Fr. Enojo (77), a retiree both as secular priest and AFP Chaplain is well versed on ilonggo history. He is also aware of the omissions and discrepancies in our history books and commented that nobody seems to care.

Politely, I explained INM's primordial objective; to attempt rectify these historical blunders and asked for his opinion and blessing.

Before we parted ways, Fr. Calixto Enojo sincerely said in a low tone voice; "Padayona ninyo ina Toto, ma-ayo gid ina nga kausa".
(Night with the General -in Manila)

Michaelangelo Hubero Siscar of Bulacan, the first "Pavianhon" in Iloilo to acquire the AFP Star Rank, came to meet me for the first time with invitation for my "last supper" in the Philippines. Salamat! BGen. Michael for the invite at the huge Mall of Asia, where we ate and drink with gusto in that great Resto Bar.

Hoping next meeting, we shall have the luxury of time for a more better acquantanceship.

(Back to the U.S.A.)

After a weeks stay in Michigan, rubbing elbows with members of the Ilonggo Association of Michigan (ILAM-USA), Inc. --I proceded to the Metropolitan Washington D.C. area with one night stop-over at Philadelphia in Pennsylvania.

In Philly, I stayed with INM Co-founder Benjie Estuche where we discussed future INM activities. Salamat! Agurang Amin kang imo pagkabalaka..

In Rockville, Maryland --during a social function, I interacted with members of the Association of Ilonggos of Metropolitan Washington D.C.(AIM), Inc. --AIM, Inc. is a tax exempt organization with over a thousand members within the Nations' Capital, State of Maryland and the Commonwealth of Virginia.

I also met David, Judy and several INM members/sympathizers during the affair coming from Canada.

In Woodbridge, Virginia --Monching Jocson of Bacolod and Himamaylan, an INM Co-founder tendered a "bienvenida" party for me, attended by Virginians from Negros Occidental.

From Fallujah, Iraq --I received email best wishes with photos in full U.S. Army combat gear of New York based INM member whose maternal ggrandad Col. Macario Sarmiento was Minister of Police of the Bohol Cantonal government under the Federal Republic of the Visayas in Sta. Barbara, Iloilo during the late 1890's.

Regretably, I was saddened to learn the demise in Iloilo of cancer stricken New York based INM Co-founder Nestor Ortiz Sulpico. He was dubbed by U.S. mainstream media, as the "Honest Cab Driver of New York" and in the Philippines as "Bagong Bayani ng Pilipinas" in the year 2005. Utod Nestor returned $80-K worth of rare black pearls left by a passenger in his taxi cab.

(I Shall Return)

The rapid growth in membership, especially among the enlightened studentry; concerned professionals and with more pledging support for INM's advocacy from advantaged Ilonggo expatriates, made me contemplate going back "home" once more to personally guide the groups direction.

We believe and are confident that with the advent of modern technology; somewhere, sometime in the near future, somebody out there --destined by fate shall emerge to lead us reach the long journey that we at INM had began and thus, finally fulfill our dream: "The Rebirth of the Ilonggo Nation".

Ang inyo alagad sa guihapon...--dinggol araneta divinagracia~~~.

Wednesday, March 05, 2008

The MANILA MAIL issue re: The Ilonggo Nation

(Feb. 4, 2008)
Washington Tsismis Column


Anybody read the online newsletter of the Ilonggos? My fellow Tsismosos have informed me
that the name of this new group should be a cause for worry for President Arroyo who is a
Kapampangan as well as Tagalogs, Itawis, Warays, Bicolanos, Ilocanos, etcetera. They
said this group might become another secessionist group similar to the Moro Islamic
Liberation Front (MILF), which wants to secede from the Philippines.

Here is this group’s collective letter to me in my email address: (

“My fellow Tsismoso:
“We are bringing to your attention the birth of a new movement that might follow the trail of
the secessionist Moro Islamic Liberation Front which is demanding independence. We urge
you to go to this group’s website called banwa_mo@yahoo. com (ilonggoNation Movement).

This movement sounds fearsome. Ilonggo Nation Movement? And its newsletter is called
Ang Pungsod Ilonggo, Kabisay-an Nakatungdan (The Ilonggo ”Nation” Movement
newsletter). What is troubling is that its first issue carried the story of the heroic Ilonggos
who fought the Spanish invaders 400 years ago! And it showed the “political map’ of
Western Visayas. It’s motto is ‘To appreciate where you are now, you should know where
you came from.’

“The newsletter said it is published fortnightly for INM (Ilongo Nationa Movement members
and friends.) In one of its issues, the top stories included ”The Cry of Sta. Barbara, I Am
Bisaya, The Ylongo Composo, etcetera.

“It says that to access its issues, please go to ”/Ang Punsod Ilonggo/” at:
www.IlonggoNation. blogspot. com Previous publications are likewise, archived therein.

“It concludes: ‘We are pleased to have the privilege of serving you. Ang inyo alagad…dinggol

“Now what will happen to the Philippines if the Ilocanos, for instance, declare an
independent Ilocano Republic, the Kampampangan their own republic etc., etc.? Please
spread the warning.”
Okay. If Gloria does not reform, I will support the Ilonggo Nation Movement and all other
Movements that will emerge.

(Note: THE MANILA MAIL is published fortnightly in the Metropolitan Washington D.C. area, that includes the Commonwealth of Virginia and the State of Maryland)
Anent above-subject, here's our rejoinder:

The Ilonggo Nation Movement's advocacy is not necessarily to secede, nor establish a "new" State but a bold attempt to agressively pursue the "Revival" of the Federal Republic of the Visayas. An independent sovereign Nation, that preceeded the present Manila-based unitarian centrist government --that evolved thru continious legal processes from the anomalous $20-million Spanish-American real estate deal under the Treaty of Peace (Paris) during the end of the last century that included our part of the archipelago.

Spain had earlier formally surrendered to our ilonggo forebears, as evidenced by the "Acta de Capitulacion-1898" duly signed by Spanish Governor-General Don Diego de los Rios, the last duly constituted Spanish authority in the Philippines, based in Iloilo.

Therefore, Spain had no more legal rights to sell to the U.S. --the territories under the control and jurisdiction of the independent Visayan Republic.

Minions and lackeys of the "Conquistadores" and U.S. imperialist victors, had deliberately designed our school books, altered historical facts to relegate our triumph against Spanish centuries of subjugation to the dustbin of history and into oblivion --our sovereignty as an independent Nation.

INM discovered this anomaly; have come to realize the diplomatic faux pas and exposed this travesty of history.

Perhaps, due to INM's initiative, the de facto Ilonggo nation was best manifested last November 6, 2007 --when the National Historical Institute under Malacanang, unvieled the long overdue Historical Marker in Bacolod City to commemorate Spain's formal surrender to the ilonggo revolucionarios after 109 years. INM's material (article) contribution was duly acknowledged by the Negros Occidental Provincial Government under Gov. Joseph Maranon.

Incidentally, your article enabled curious readers of Manila Mail, especially Visayans, to visit "Ang Pungsod Ilonggo" INM's eNewsletter at: which apparently, bolstered our membership list that already contained about thirty thousand groups and individuals globally. Salamat guid!

Padayon ang Republika Federal sang Kabisay-an!
Sa guihapon... dinggol a. divinagracia

(Founder: The Ilonggo Nation Movement)
jamimah estuche wrote:

Ang tsismis naga-umpisa sa hutik-hutik; ang hutik-hutik may dala nga malisya. Ergo, ang mga tsismoso, malisyoso.
OK, the syllogism above is fallacious somewhere, which is the point when we look at the above article from the Manila Mail.
If one looks closely at the INM newsletter, the following is glaringly presented:
1) That the Ilonggo Nation predates the Republic of the Philippines by more than 500 years;
2) There is nothing fearsome from the name "Ilonggo Nation Movement" parsing it to "Ilonggo," "Nation" and "Movement." Like all tsismis, fear arises from ignorance;
3) There is no illusion of secession in the purposes of the INM because of no. 1 above. We are there to correct the illusion of Philippine nationhood, emanating from the wrong perception of history and by the way it was written with contemptible bias from the standpoint of "imperial Manila" (to quote my good friend from SOLFED, Dr. Jose P. Dacudao);
4) Historical events were wrongly presented by the minions of the Loyalists to the Spanish Monarchy who wanted the archipelago declared as a Spanish Province and had fantasized of representation to the Spanish Cortes in the mid and late 19th century in the same manner that the latter American lackeys deceitfully manipulated events leading to the Treaty of Paris in 1898;
5) The motto as quoted is a simple paraphrasing of Rizal's "Ang taong hindi marunong tumingin sa kanyang pinanggalingan ay hindi makarating sa kanyang patutungohan" and does not contain any word or phrase that denotes any revolutionary/secessionist fervor as in "Workers of the world, unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains!;"
6) When the perception is as in No. 1 above, who is there to secede?
7) Most of those who contribute their minds in here are, in fact and in truth, advocates of FEDERALISM, except for the undersigned, who believes that the Philippines should first break up into several nation-states, each of which shall democratically express their individual intention to collectively federalize, if that is their democratic will; This post does not reflect the collective will of the INM but only of the undersigned.

Priest-soldiers of Panay
(By: Atty. Rex T. Salvilla -The News Today-Iloilo)

On March 18, we will be celebrating the Anniversary of the Liberation of Panay. We have been honoring our veterans and had been focusing on the fighting men and often times overlooking the non-combatant elements of our armed forces.
So this time, let us dwell on the fighting padres -- the chaplains who were with the Panay guerillas. Here they are:
1. Capt. Mariano Ga - 61st Infantry Division Chaplain of the Philippine Independent Church (Aglipayan church). After the war, he retired as major and became the Obispo Maximo (Supreme Head) of that church.
2. 1Lt. Jose Dacudao - 61st Infantry Div. Chaplain of the Catholic Church.
3. 1Lt. Ildefonso Odi - 61st Inf. Regt. Chaplain. After the war, he retired as major and became a monsignor serving in several parishes his last being Janiuay.
4. 1Lt. Ciriaco Escutin - 62nd Inf. Regt. Chaplain. After the war, he became Chief Chaplain of the Armed Forces of the Philippines with rank of brigadier general.
5. 1Lt. Celso Pasiderio - 63rd Inf. Regt Chaplain.
6. 1Lt. Miguel Tadifa - 64th Inf. Regt Chaplain. After the war, he became Chief Chaplain of the Philippine Army with rank of full colonel. He saw action in the Korean was as chaplain of the 10th Battalion Combat Team (10th BCT).
7. 1Lt. Federico Velasco - 65th Inf Regt Chaplain
8. 1Lt. Vicente Tim timan - 66th Inf Regt Chaplain
9. 1Lt. Aguston Masa - 61st Inf. Chaplain for Protestant sects.
In the 71st Inf. Division of Negros Guerillas two from Panay served as chaplains, thus:
1. Major Antonio Frondosa -- Chief Division Chaplain (Catholic). After the war, he became the first archbishop of Capiz.
2. 1Lt. Felix Regalado -- regimental chaplain (Protestant) of the 71st Inf Regt.
Of post war officers, we have Fr. Vicente Vacante who served as chaplain in the Philippine Army until he retired as full colonel.
In the United States Navy, there is Lt. Col. Roy Panes who saw action in the Iraq war in 1990.
Lastly, a hundred years ago, during the Philippine Revolution Iloilo, three Ilonggo Catholic priests joined the revolution as chaplains in the Ejercito Libertador. The chief chaplain was Fr. Praxedes Magalona and his assistants were Fr. Santiago Pamplona and Fr. Sivestre Apura.
Rizal: Undeserved Adjectives?

A radical historian who constantly challenges the status quo of historicity urged yesterday future writers on the life, works and heroism of Dr. Jose Rizal to refrain from further embarrassing him with undeserved adjectives that do not faithfully reflect his true being.
Rizal had never seen a corporate boardroom in his lifetime and therefore not a businessman as portrayed by Dr. Ernesto Sibal in his book, Rizal the Businesssman. He merely hawked farm products in the sidewalks of Dapitan, according to author, professor, newspaper columnist, magazine editor and historian Dr. Frank Grego.
The national hero is not a linguist as portrayed by historians Sofronio Alip and Gregorio Zaide. He had no formal studies in linguistics and dialectics who learned Japanese because of his pursuit for the love of O Sei San in Japan; French to communicate with Nely Buosted and Gertrude Becket whom he wooed in Paris; German for his unrelenting interest to his A las Flores de Heidelberg; and Spanish because of his education in Ateneo and Universitae de Sto. Tomae.
Dr. Grego stressed that Rizal indeed carved a head of a carabao during one of his depressive days but he was not a sculptor as historified by Teodoro Agoncillo. His carving was far beyond compare with those of the Igorots’s and the wood carvers in Paete.
The national hero was not an ophthalmologist as pictured by other historians when he checked the blurring eyes of his mother. He did not undergo any ophthalmic fellowship, for he obtained a mere licentiate and not a doctorate in medicine, Grego emphasized.
“Why do they have to embarrass Rizal with these inaccurate labels in their desperate efforts to justify his proclamation by the Philippine Commission as an American-made National Hero in 1902?” Dr. Grego asked.
(Source: ACAbaya’s TAPATT)
"Virtual Reality" column of Tony Lopez
June 12, 2007 Issue of The Manila Times
Just how bad dynasties are to the economy and the country can be gleaned from the amount of taxpayers' money these people have access to.
Take the Senate. There will be siblings - Pia and Alan Cayetano. In addition, Alan's wife, Laarni, took his old congressional seat from Taguig.

The No.2 most popular senator, Chiz Escudero, has his father, Sonny, as congressman from Sorsogon, his son's old turf.

Ed Angara is senator; his son and namesake is a congressman.
A senator draws P200 million in pork barrel; a congressman, P70 million. Therefore, Pia, Alan and Laarni will rake in P470 million a year, or P1.4 billion in three years. Chiz and Sonny will enjoy P270 million per year, or P810 million in three years, just like the Angara father-and-son tandem.

How much does the average poor make a day? A third of the 85 million population, or 25.5 million of the people of this country make less than $1 a day, or P365 (or P17,155) a year.

According to Ping Lacson, the P200-million pork barrel of a senator is just a starting figure. If a senator sponsors a Cabinet department during the budget hearings and sessions, he/she is given access to P350 million in the line budget of that department. So P200 million plus P350 million, that's P550 million.

What do the Filipino people get in return for electing these people? Very little, if any.

In the last 100 years since Filipinos began electing their representatives, the Philippines degenerated from being the No. 1 economy, trading and commercial power in Asia to No. 73 least compe-titive country in the world.

Today, the Philippines is less free than it was a century ago. Did you know that the Philippines used to be Asia's industrial power?

As late as the 19th century, the Philippines was already one of Asia's premier industrialized countries and was the center of culture and education. The country was producing iron-ore sheets, refined iron ore, liquor from molasses using then unheard-of boilers, fine textiles for export, and was using steam engines and steamships. It established the first bank in Asia, made the first typhoon forecast in Asia, and set up the first European-style universities in Asia.

Manila had a street car system, just like San Francisco; and had a ferrocarril line from the city to Dagupan in the north and from Manila to Batangas and Bicol in the south. By 1895, Manila had an electric light system. The first taxi fleet, the first airline, the first modern newspapers, the first conglomerate were established by Filipino tycoons. What happened after that?

During the last 100 years, Japan became a military power and the world's No. 2 economic power next to the United States.

During the last 50 years, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore became economic miracles. Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore became nation states (they used to be unknown islands while Filipinos were already conducting diplomatic relations with Europe and China).

In fact, at one time, the Sultan of Sulu was a frequent visitor in China because he liked it there. He stayed there for three months, but died of syphilis. The Chinese erected a monument in his honor.
In the last 30 years, the Philippines became the slowest growing economy per capita in Asia, bar none. During that time, Congress produced 15,000 laws and law schools 30,000 lawyers, half of whom are active. So two lawyers for every one law. Yet, the Philippines has a very poor human rights and economic rights record.

We got our priorities wrong. We gave the people the power to vote even before the people and those they elect learned how to govern properly, or at the very least, prepare or educate themselves to have a modicum of competency and honesty.

These days, people kill people just to be able to serve the people. People bribe people just to be able to serve the people. That is the meaning of a heated electoral contest. And of fraudulent elections.

Should our politicians be blamed for the nadir we have fallen into? I will say No if those families mentioned in the first part of this column will return their pork barrel and declare, "from now on, I will truly serve the people." C'mon, give the money to the 12-million school- age children who are out of school because of extreme poverty. You don't deserve so much money. You didn't earn it.

(Email forwarded by Segunda N. Del Mar- INM: SW Washington D.C.)


Filipino Demoralization: Creation of an Ilonggo Republic(By: Brig. Gen. Michaelangelo H. Siscar, AFP (Ret,) -INM: Bulacan -Philippines)
Dec. 22, 2007

In the news recently, it is reported in the Philippine Daily Star that many Filipinos are traveling to Singapore illegally To work as prostitute. Another chilling news is the sale of internal organs by Filipinos to the Americans, British, Canadian, Australian, Japanese in exchange of a few pesos.
There are a million and one reasons for all these things that are happening. But the bottom line is that many Filipinos have lost their hope and industry and have succumbed to temptation of easy money.
And what is the government doing about this? They are very vocal against these things but no one seem to walk their talk. Corruption continues to stall industry and development. No big fish is caught. And if they are caught they are quickly pardoned. Rapists are pardoned and set free.
In the news too today, a well known Congressman who was convicted of raping a minor Is to be set free today after only 13 years of confinement. Another murderer who took the life of an Italian priest is to be pardoned also, according to the news, in a few days.
Yes we lack justice. We Do not punish to make the strongest point. We are very merciful in spite of the fact. And so the country is going nowhere. The roads are all tupsy-turvy, full of Holes, large holes and deep holes. The concrete roads are sub-standard, inferior, low class and low quality in exchange for a few kick backs. You can see corruption on the road glaring at you in the face in broad daylight and even in the dark of the night because if you are not careful your car's chassis will get broken because of hard bumps.
And yet we will wonder why only a few denounce this kind of governance. And those who would dare question the government are quickly placed in solitary confinement and in limbo. No wonder many are selling their flesh and souls to survive.
I hope God Would Enlighten All of Us in creating a New Ilonggo Republic.
We need a radical change and let it start in our own ilonggo community.
Sylvester from Vancouver, Canada
(INM: Vancouver-Canada)
"Weep like a Woman’
(By: Antonio C. Abaya -Jan. 22, 2008)
By the year 1482, the Moorish caliphate in the Iberian Peninsula (what is now Spain and Portugal ) had shrunk to a small perimeter around the city of Granada in southeastern Spain.
At its zenith, the Muslim armies from North Africa that had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in the years 711 to 718 AD, had conquered most of what are now Spain and Portugal, and had sallied forth into France, where they were finally defeated and driven back by Christian armies led by Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours in the year 732. AD.
The Muslim occupation of Spain and Portugal lasted for several centuries leaving an indelible imprint on Iberian culture and civilization. To this day, many modern Europeans sniff that “Africa begins at the Pyrenees .”
But by the end of the first millennium (1000 AD), incessant quarrels and fighting among Muslim chieftains – a common enough phenomenon that persists to the 21st century – allowed the Christian kingdoms to fight back and recover lost ground.
By the year 1482, the Christians had re-conquered the kingdoms of Toledo , Sevilla and Cordoba .. In the year 1492, when the Italian navigator Christopher Columbus – Cristobal Colon – was sent by the Spanish king on his epochal voyage to the Americas , the Christian kingdoms of Aragon and Castille, reunited by the marriage of their sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, fielded their combined armies and defeated the quarreling Muslims in Granada.
The last Muslim caliph in Iberia , Boabdil, was sent weeping into exile back to North Africa . Legend has it that his aged mother bitterly reproached him: “Weep like a woman for the city you would not defend like a man.”
Seven years ago, on a scale not quite as grandiose as the events that unfolded in Iberia in 1492, a pretentious rajah – historically the inheritor of the Muslim outpost of Maynilad – also gave up his throne on the banks of the Pasig River as a band of unarmed street demonstrators noisily descended on his Alhambra.
His son, the Datu Jinggoy, was weeping openly, and Rajah Erap was teary-eyed, as they and their entourage boarded a motor launch to the rear of their Alhambra that would take them to the relative safety of not quite North Africa, but their scruffy ancestral fiefdom of San Juan.
History did not record Erap’s aged mother saying anything quotable during the Teary Escape, but she could just as justifiably have uttered the same humiliating lines hurled at Boabdil in 1492: “Weep like a woman for the city you would not defend like a man.”
Whatever happened to Filipino Machismo so often personified – or so I am told – by Erap in his Tagalog movies? Why did he not stand his ground and defend his Alhambra to the death? What was he so afraid of from an undisciplined but unarmed mob?
He had his heavily armed Presidential Security Group janissaries, backed up by armored personnel carriers, who would have sent the unarmed mob scurrying for cover with a few shots fired in the air. They may have stopped being under the command of Erap after AFP Chief-of-staff Gen. Angelo Reyes had “withdrawn his support,” but surely Erap’s magic would still have worked wonders with the masa of whom the soldiers were a part...
By ignominiously fleeing from the seat of power, Erap gave the Supreme Court the excuse to concoct what only Filipino lawyers could have invented, namely that he had “constructively resigned” from the presidency, thus justifying swearing in his vice-president, Gloria Arroyo, as the new president.
Barely five months later, in May 2001, another unarmed mob descended on Erap’s former Alhambra , egged on by the likes of Juan Ponce Enrile and Miriam Defensor-Santiago, this time seeking the “constructive resignation” of Gloria.
But unlike the easily frightened Rajah Erap, the steely-nerved Gloria, who has all the intimidating persona of a Girl Scout selling cookies, stood her ground and, in effect, stared the mob eyeball-to-eyeball until they blinked.
By hastily abandoning the seat of power without a fight in January 2001, Erap showed himself to be a coward, the exact opposite of the two-fisted Macho Man he liked to portray in his movies and, no doubt, his personal fantasies.
Of course, Rajah Erap was following in the footsteps of another Filipino Macho Man, Rajah Ferdinand, who famously but falsely promoted himself as the Most Decorated Filipino Soldier in World War II, with most of his medals awarded to himself decades after the War, when he was already senator……who also abandoned the seat of power without a fight in February 1986.
Erap says Jan. 20 2001 was the “death of democracy in the Philippines .” That would have been convincing had he stood his ground and fought heroically to the death.
Instead, he “weeps like a woman for the city he was not man enough to defend.” *****
(Email forwarded by: Mon B. Jocson-INM: Woodbridge,VA-USA)

In the 1400's a law was set forth in England that a man was allowed to
beat his wife with a stick no thicker than his thumb. Hence we have "the
rule of thumb"
Many years ago in Scotland , a new game was invented. It was ruled
"Gentlemen Only...Ladies Forbidden".. .and thus the word GOLF entered
into the English language.
The first couple to be shown in bed together on prime time TV were Fred
and Wilma Flintstone.
Every day more money is printed for Monopoly than the U.S. Treasury.
Men can read smaller print than women can; women can hear better.
Coca-Cola was originally green.
It is impossible to lick your elbow.
The State with the highest percentage of people who walk to work:
The percentage of Africa that is wilderness: 28%.
The percentage of North America that is wilderness: 38%
The cost of raising a medium-size dog to the age of eleven: $ 16,400
The average number of people airborne over the U.S. in any given hour:
Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.
The first novel ever written on a typewriter: Tom Sawyer.
The San Francisco Cable cars are the only mobile National Monuments.
Each king in a deck of playing cards represents a great king from
Spades - King David
Hearts - Charlemagne
Clubs -Alexander, the Great
Diamonds - Julius Caesar
111,111,111 x 111,111,111 = 12,345,678,987, 654,321
If a statue in the park of a person on a horse has both front legs in
the air, the person died in battle. If the horse has one front leg in
the air the person died as a result of wounds received in battle. If the
horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural
Only two people signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, John
Hancock and Charles Thomson. Most of the rest signed on August 2, but
the last signature wasn't added until 5 years later.
Q. Half of all Americans live within 50 miles of what?
-A. Their birthplace
Q. Most boat owners name their boats. What is the most popular boat name
-A. Obsession
Q. If you were to spell out numbers, how far would you have to go until
you would find the letter "A"?
-A. One thousand
Q. What do bulletproof vests, fire escapes, windshield wipers, and laser
printers all have in common?
-A. All were invented by women.
Q. What is the only food that doesn't spoil?
-A. Honey
Q. Which day are there more collect calls than any other day of the
-A. Father's Day
In Shakespeare' s time, mattresses were secured on bed frames by ropes.
When you pulled on the ropes the mattress tightened, making the bed
firmer to sleep on. Hence the phrase...... ... "goodnight, sleep tight."
It was the accepted practice in Babylon 4,000 years ago that for a month
after the wedding, the bride's father would supply his son-in-law with
all the mead he could drink. Mead is a honey beer and because their
calendar was lunar based, this period was called the honey month, which
we know today as the honeymoon.
In English pubs, ale is ordered by pints and quarts... So in old England
, when customers got unruly, the bartender would yell at them "Mind your
pints and quarts, and settle down."
It's where we get the phrase "mind your P's and Q's"
Many years ago in England , pub frequenters had a whistle baked into the
rim, or handle, of their ceramic cups. When they needed a refill, they
used the whistle to get some service. "Wet your whistle" is the phrase
inspired by this practice.
At least 75% of people who read this will try to lick their elbow!
Don't delete this just because it looks weird. Believe it or not, you
can read it.
I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg.
The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at
Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a
wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be
in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed
it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey
lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?
(Email forwarded by: Ms. Laura Diago-INM: Southfield,MI-USA)

Tuesday, January 01, 2008

============ ========= ========= ========= =========
* Volume No. II * Issue No. 01* Date: January 1, 2008 *

*The INM * Ang Mabangis!...* The Rise & Fall of the FRV * The Araneta's *
The Locsin's * Layers of Ilonggo Reality * Insights: Foods * Make My Day!

Today in History!
*25th of December*


In observance of the birth date of Jesus Christ "Our Lord and Redeemer"; the 109th anniversary celebration of Spain’s formal surrender to the Federal Republic of the Visayas and the second Foundation Day anniversary of the Ilonggo Nation Movement in Cyberspace --this article is written as a tribute to the ilonggos, a proud and deeply religious people with rich and noble heritage.

Mga Kasimanwa:
The Ilonggo Nation of Western Visayas existed since 1214 up to the early 1900's. It has a seperate and distinct political set-up; its own culture, ethnic languages and traditions; history and aspirations. A proud race of noble heritage.

The Spaniards who colonized the whole archipelago for about 333 years were evidently defeated and formally surrendered to our forebears in Negros and again on December 25, 1898, after the the Federal Republic of the Visayas was legally established based in Iloilo.

Thus, supposed to signal the end of foreign sovereignty and domination. Unfortunately, however, in view of U.S. policy “manifest destiny” imposed upon us and due to the onward march of modern imperialism that substituted centuries of colonialism --this became a travesty of history.

The “Ilonggo Nation Movement” with it's Banwa_Mo eForum .. a group organized in a bold attempt to resurrect our glorious past, redeem the lost prestige of the Ilonggos and hopefully would act as the vanguard to aggressively pursue the revival of our sovereign Visayan Federal Republic. Thereby, create a force to reckon with; that perhaps, might deter perpetuators of the maladies that now confronts our people.

Thanks to the wonders of modern technology, we pray to wage this war not in the fields of battle but initially in cyberspace. The adversaries, not foreign invaders who trampled our sacred shores but a callous and undisciplined (ourselves included) society of apathy and injustice.

The main objective: to instill awareness worldwide; win the hearts and minds of ilonggos of today and generations to come; so that they, may be able to participate in the war against dismal poverty and landlessness due to greed of the oligarchy (the modern day ilustrados); despair and hopelessness due to graft and corruption in all levels of government; and the existence of the well entrenched Political Dynasties "Psuedo Royalties" of traditional politicians who controls "Perlas ng Silanganan" from "Katigulangan Kag Kaapohan"; that's the new "KKK" for you...

Bugtaw na Banwa! .. Pass this on! .. Madamo guid nga salamat!!
Today in History !
*Deciembre 27, 1898*

Ang Mabangis! Kalbo nga Agila kag ang Duha ka Adlaw nga Pisu!
(By: dinggol a. divinagracia -INM -December 27, 2007)
On December 27, 1898, the ferocious bald eagle swooped down to Madya-as, waited for awhile, then attacked and began the emasculation of the two-day old "Chick."
Thus, was the "manifest destiny" of our short-lived nationhood “Ang Republika Federal sang Kabisay-an“ --at the turn of the last century.
Adding insult to injury, the new foreign invaders branded our forebears; the brave revolucionarios and patriots as cultists, brigands, bandits, insurrectionists.
Maybe “Uncle Sam” was ignorant of the fact that we were an infant but already a sovereign Nation State with a legitimate form of government --two days earlier. Or perhaps, knew but still refuse to know as the onward march of greed and modern imperialism substituted centuries of colonialism.
To entertain the negative notion, a mindset that today we cry over spilled milk over this unfortunate encounter, this travesty of history is not only absurd but sheer ignorance. The objective is not only to remind the whole world of this historical blunder, this diplomatic faux pas ---but more importantly, to instill in the minds and enshrine in the hearts of the young and future generations, a legacy of their proud and noble heritage --nipped in the bud by a socratic irony of fate.
That notwithstanding i
nsurmountable odds, our forefathers valiantly fought with dignity against those who trampled our sacred shores.
And that we accepted defeat as a victory with a smile; knowing that once upon a time, we as a people in the Visayas --won our freedom in the fields of battle and formally acheived a legitimate independence after more than 333 years of foreign subjugation under Spanish colonial rule and made world history as the first Republic in all of Asia --the Federal Republic of the Visayas!

The Rise and Fall of the Federal Republic of the Visayas
(By: dinggol a.divinagracia -INM -December 30, 2007)
Chronology of Events:
December 18, 1856: Graciano Lopez-Jaena was born in Jaro, Iloilo City. History recognized him as the first reformist and the acknowledged "Trailblazer" of the Philippine Propaganda Movement. At age 18, he wrote “Fray Butod” that exposed the abuses and unholy alliance between Spanish authorities, abusive encomenderos and the Frailes.
In 1880, he reached Spain and together with Dr. Jose P. Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar, who arrived in 1882 and 1889 respectively --formed the great triumvirate who advocated reforms for the welfare of the Filipino people.
In February 1889, Lopez Jaena founded the "La Solidaridad" that became the mouthpiece of the propaganda movement, with the Noli, Fili and others --it ignited the major spark that started the armed Philippine Revolution in 1896.
After the “Cry of Balintawak” on August 26, 1896, Katipunan Supremo Andres Bonifacio sent home Francisco del Castillo and Candido Iban ----to start the uprising in Aklan (part of Capiz). Gen. del Castillo, who led 82 Aklanon recruits was killed in battle on March 17, 1897. Two days later, the Spanish authorities with local collaborators, enticed his men to surrender with promise of amnesty. But those who gave-up, were deceived, tortured and imprisoned.
Nineteen leaders were executed, their dead bodies paraded around Kalibo town Plaza to demoralize the populace. Thus, the short-lived Katipunan led revolution in that part of Capiz ended in defeat.
Years later, the patriotic fervor was rekindled and the armed revolution resurrected in the whole Province of Capiz under the able leadership of Gen. Esteban Contreras.
The "Comite de Conspiradores" initiated by Francisco Villanueva and headed by Don Raymundo Melliza was formed in “Parian” now Molo in Iloilo on March 18, 1898. This became the nucleus that started the highly disciplined and well organized covert Revolutionary Movement in the island of Panay.
Thereafter, Gen. Roque Lopez -the elected President of the Assembly, Gen. Pablo Araneta -Panay island Commanding General and Chief Expeditionary Forces for the Visayas and other leaders of the council ; secretly maintained liaison with their clan and friends in Negros and nearby island provinces to start the armed uprising in their area.
Earlier, Capitan Martin Delgado led the volunteer battalion of ilonggo contingents under the Spaniards who fought against Gen. Aguinaldos forces in Cavite and Pampanga. These military expeditions were mostly financed by Iloilo’s elite; more notably, Gobernadorcillo of "Salog" now Jaro --Don Eugenio Jalandoni Lopez and Don Felix de la Rama of "Parian" now Molo.
Later, however, Don Martin secretly worked for the Visayan instead of the Spanish cause and organized for an open armed rebellion against the Spaniards. Several Visayan Generals conferred and chose Delgado as “General en Jefe de los Tropas del Ejercito Libertador de Visayas y Governador Politico-Militar” based in Sta. Barbara, Iloilo.

The Visayan leaders recognized Aguinaldo's revolutionary government, since it was for a Federal Republic of the Philippines, with a federal State each for Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Later, however, on May 24th upon the advice of Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, an autocratic regime was established with Emilio Aguinaldo as dictator. This move was oppossed by Apolinario Mabini, a Batangueno and by the Visayan leaders, but on the 12th of June, 1898, under this dictatorship Philippine Independence was proclaimed in Kawit, Cavite.
Gen. Pantaleon “Leon Kilat” Villegas, of Bacong, Negros Oriental as directed by the Negros Island revolutionary leaders organized the Revolucionarios in Cebu and on the 3rd of April, 1898 led the armed uprising against Spanish authorities together with Luis Flores , Florencio Gonzales, Candido Padilla, Andres Abellana, and others.
September 21, 1898 -Gen. Leandro Locsin Fullon arrived in Pandan, Antique as Head of the expeditionary forces to Panay sent by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.
However, the Luzon force under his command and Gen. Ananias Diokno's attempt to assert their presence was regarded by the Visayan revolutionary leaders as an ''invasion'' force and met with hostility --since the Visayans did not want to recognize the supremacy of Aguinaldo.
Although, they fought side by side for the same cause and under one flag, with the star emblem representing Panay, later symbolizing the Visayas after a federal government was formally established.

When the Americans invaded Iloilo, Gen. Fullon joined his cousin Gen. Pablo Araneta and helped in the resistance with other leaders of the Federal Republic of the Visayas. (See related Article in Sept. 1, 2007 issue: The “Revolucionario” of Antique)
November 5, 1898 -the Independent Negros Republic was declared in Bago Plaza, Negros Occidental by Gen. Juan "Tan Juan" Araneta when Spanish authorities under Col. Isidro de Castro, Politico-Military Governor of Negros Island capitulated. Earlier, Gen. Marciano S. Araneta led the revolucionarios capture the Spanish Cuartel General in "Mangkas" now La Carlota, while Don Diego de la Vina defeated the Spanish authorities in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental.
Next day, the 6th of November --Don Diego de los Rios, last Governor-General of Spain in the Philippines signed the Formal Surrender Documents "Acta de Capitulacion" in Bacolod, duly acknowledged by Gen. Aniceto Lacson-Presidente and other officials of the Independent Negros Republic.
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas and Mindanao proclaimed by Gen-en-Gefe Martin Delgado during the November 17th “Cry of Sta. Barbara” in Iloilo, was replaced on November 23, 1898 to a politico-military government composed only of the Visayas. The leaders preferred instead a federal arrangement composed of; Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao as a logical substitute because of its indigenous elements.
December 2, 1898 -after series of serious discussions and thorough deliberations with the merger of the Independent Republic of Negros, the Cantonal Government of Bohol and other nearby island Provinces --the Panay government, based in Iloilo was formally renamed the Federal Republic of the Visayas.

By middle of December, the Revolutionaries led by Gen. Esteban Contreras together with Colonels Pascual Barza & Juan Arce with Captain Alejandro Balgos led the Capizenos defeated and drove the Spanish forces out of Capiz, a few days before Spanish authorities totally capitulated to the Visayas Republic in Iloilo City. In Romblon, then still a part of Capiz, Col. Diego de Diaz became commander of the revolutionary forces.
December 23, 1898 -Governor-General Diego de los Rios, to avoid further bloodshed, relinquished Spain’s banner and official saber --symbol of Spanish authority, for formal surrender to the leaders of the approaching victorious revolutionary forces, thru Iloilo “Alcalde” Jose Ma. Gay.
He was the last Spanish “Alcalde Mayor” in Iloilo and the son of Vicente Gay and Trinidad Ditching Soriano, daughter of Don Anselmo Soriano y Flores (Molo Gobernadorcillo-1860) and Maria Dy Ching of Binondo, Manila.

Alcalde Jose Ma. Gay, was likewise, a first cousin of Gen. Pablo S. Araneta, Panay Island Commanding General of the revolutionary forces. This act was witnessed by civilian members of the “Comite de Conspiradores” Jovito Yusay and Ramon Avancena with other local officials.
The Revolutionary Forces led by Gen. Martin Delgado (Gral-en-Gefe), Gen. Pablo S. Araneta -Panay Island Commanding General, Gen. Leandro Fullon of Antique and Gen. Esteban Contreras of Capiz, after several fierced battles had by then taken all the towns in Panay. While the revolucionarios under Gen. Roque Lopez of Jaro, Gen. Quintin Salas of Dumangas, Gen. Teresa Magbanua of Pototan, Gen. Adriano Hernandez of Dingle, Gen. Angel Corteza of Molo and others had already encircled the whole City of Iloilo.
December 24, 1898 -Gov. General Don Diego de los Rios, evacuated for Zamboanga on the way home to Spain together with Spanish Politico-Military Governor of Negros, Isidro de Castro and Cebu Politico-Military Governor Adolfo Montero, who hastily created a Cebuano caretaker committee before he left.
December 25, 1898 -Following the departure of the Spaniards, Gen. Martin T. Delgado led the Revolucionarios made a triumphal entry into the City of Iloilo with victorious parade to Plaza Alfonso XII, where he declared the Independence of the Federal Republic of the Visayas and renamed it “Plaza Libertad “.
December 27, 1898 -American Military Force led by Gen. Marcus Miller arrived in four US warships to Iloilo harbor to demand the surrender of the City. Several negotiations were made but leaders of the newly established sovereign Visayan Nation based in Iloilo vehemently refused.
February 2, 1899 -An American naval force appeared along the coastline of Negros ready for war. Gen. Aniceto Lacson -Negros President , seeing no chance of winning against the new invaders opted not to fight and ceded control when guarantees of property rights were made.
Moreover, the elite Negros leaders -were more interested in peace with America for commercial consideration as a fertile market for their booming sugar industry.
February 7, 1899 -Without expecting surrender and peaceful take-over, the Americans began the continious naval bombardment of Iloilo City for about a week --that brought irreparable damages and totally demolished the historic “Fort San Pedro“ citadel.
February 14, 1899 -American troops led by Gen. Robert Hughes landed at Fort San Pedro, near Santo Rosario in Iloilo and took it by storm. Villages were razed to the ground and hundreds of civilians were brutally killed, including defenseless women and small children. (see related Article in the June 21, 2007 issue: A “Sham” in the Heart of Iloilo City).
February 22, 1899 -The Fall of Iloilo to the Americans. Ilonggo troops fought the Americans in pitched battles in towns around Iloilo City. The resistance continued even after the surrender of the Visayan Supremo --Gen. Martin T. Delgado.

On April 27, 1899, Aguinaldo issued a decree abolishing the Federal Republic of the Visayas, which the Visayan leaders ignored. The embattled Republic continued to function, moving its capital from town to town in the Province of Iloilo.
The resistance in Cebu were led by Gen. Juan Climaco and Gen. Arcadio Maxilom. While in Panay, by Gen. Quintin D. Salas of Dumangas-Iloilo --the last Revolutionary General to surrender on October, 1902.
February 2, 1901 -Surrender of the Panay Forces to the Americans. The Ilonggos resisted but, weary of war and poorly armed, they were soon overwhelmed by the new and well-armed enemy. Many of the leaders surrendered and relative peace was restored.
July 4, 1902 -President Theodore Roosevelt officially ended the Philippine-American War earlier known as the “Philippine Insurrection“ by issuing the Peace Proclamation and Granting of Pardon/Amnesty to the "Insurrectionists" who in reality were patriots, fighting for freedom and defending the sovereignty of their independent Nation; the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF THE VISAYAS.
After the surrender of Gen. Aniceto Lacson to the Americans, Dionisio "Papa Isio" Sigobeyla of Cauayan in Negros --a babaylan declared himself the head of the Revolutionary Government in Negros Island. He fought the American troops for about eight more years until his capture in 1907.
In 1925 --Florencio Entrencherado, of Central Iloilo in Panay, continued the fight against foreign interference and heavy taxation by U.S. authorities --until he was captured and imprisoned in Manila on May 1927, where he died two years later.
The United States of America invaded the territories of the Federal Republic of the Visayas; a sovereign independent Nation State recognized by at least one foreign country (Spain) --without a Formal Declaration of War. This is a blatant violation of the "International Rules of War" --an agreement by civilized nations of the world even at that time.
Nota Bene:
INM Member Benjie Estuche had earlier stated: “It is rather speculative as it is without basis of history if we mean of "history" is that which had been written for us by the “tutas” of our
colonial and imperial masters …"

(Excerpted: Inquirer 6/13/1999- "View of revolt in provinces spurs revision" by Amando Doronila):
As pointed out by Dr. Ma. Luisa T. Camagay, professor of history at UP, ''for a long time, the history of the Philippines has been written and narrated in a manner whereby events transpiring in the provinces, towns and barrios were but ripples created by Manila, the political, economic, social and cultural center of the country...(The) history of the country has been told and retold with the Philippines being one monolithic homogenous structure with Manilas as the gauge of the national pulse. This kind of historiograpy has persisted for a long time until an awareness of local units exhibited a dynamism of its own.''
Recently, we have come to realize that distorted historical facts, were ingrained in our minds as school children and continiously being cited by present day historians and writers.
While that’s their prerogative and we respect their opinion, sometimes it is better to believe history handed down from generation to generation --rather than from any Tom, Dick and Harry.
Incidentally, some data and informations as contained in above-article were secured personally directly from testimonies of children and grandchildren of the following --who had played important roles during these glorious chapters in our history, to wit:
Don Raymundo A. Melliza, Gen. Pablo S. Araneta, Gen. Leandro L. Fullon, Gen. Juan T. Araneta, Gen. Aniceto L. Lacson, Gen. Marciano S. Araneta, Don Gregorio S. Araneta, Iloilo "Alcalde" Jose Ma. S. Gay and Gen. Quintin D. Salas.
It would also be fair to add, that the author is closely related by consanguinity to all of the afore-mentioned ancestors.
Moreover, during the 95th Anniversary of the “Cry of Sta. Barbara” in Iloilo on November 17, 1993 --I had the opportunity to interact with descendants of other 1898 'Revolucionarios' of Panay and Negros during the reunion of members. The celebration was chaired by then Vice Governor of Iloilo, Hon. Demy Sonza -Chairman: Iloilo Provincial Historical Committee and famed ilonggo historian.

(By: dinggol araneta divinagracia- #

The Early History * Genealogy

The Philippine Aranetas are descended from two brothers who came from the Guipuzcoa Province of the historical region of the Vascongadas or Basque Country in northern Spain. Evidently hidalgos or members of nobility since they possessed a Coat-of-Arms.

During the Galleon Trade in 1723, Baltazar de Araneta y Guyol and his brother Don Jose de Araneta arrived in Manila from Acapulco, Mexico on board the "Nuestra Senora de Guia". Baltazar, an officer in the Spanish fleet married to Manuela de Aguirre served as a Regidor of the Cabildo in Manila and later became the Secretary of the charitable fraternity of the Misericordia. He died in Manila in 1750. His son , Juan Francisco Araneta y Aguirre, a maestre on the galleon "Santisima Trinidad" fought the British forces when they attacked Manila in 1762. He proved his nobility before the justices of Gaiza in the year 1773.

While in 1725, Don Jose de Araneta y Guyol joined the first expeditionary forces for Mindanao together with Don Placido Alberto de Saavedra, to serve the Spanish Politico-Military Government based at Zamboanga City as interpreter of the government and the Sultan of Maguindanao --Sultan Amiril Mamini Camsa, a.k.a. Amir ud-Din Hamza, also referred to by the khalifal title "Amir-ul-Muhminin." Don Jose de Araneta died in line of duty as Royal Interpreter in 1746 at Silangan (Sulugan) the present Anuling in Cotabato, Mindanao. Don Jose's two sons, Mathias and Vicente, both surnamed Araneta y Santa Ana left Zamboanga for Iloilo while another son Jose Benito stayed behind.

Years later, Vicente Araneta y Santa Ana together with his family joined the exodus of the more adventurous prominent ilonggos such as the Yulos' and the Yusays'; the Locsins's and the Lacsons'; the Lopezes' and the Ledesmas'; the Jalandonis' and Javellanas'; the Montinolas' and Montelibanos'; the Valencias' and Villanuevas'; the Salases' and de la Ramas' and others who migrated to the "New Frontier", the fertile island of Negros formerly known as "Isla de Buglas" with its' majestic Mount Kanlaon that eventually became famous as Sugarlandia.
The Araneta Family and the Philippine Revolution

When the Philippine Revolution against Spain broke out in 1896 and continued during the American regime, the Aranetas' of Molo in Iloilo (based in the Philippine Insurgents Record sub-titled "Las Familias Insurrectos del Pueblo de Molo" of the National Library) actively participated in the revolutionary movement.

The family of Don Felix Locsin-Militante Araneta and Paz Ditching Soriano de Araneta; almost all their children; his sister Ceferina Araneta-Esteban's sons Emilio and Eduardo; and brother Agaton Militante Araneta with his wife Josefa Locsin-Araneta were all listed in the "Insurrectos de Molo" records. Don Felix has a twin brother named Gabriel married to Antonina Gonzales.

While some of Don Felix and Dna. Paz Soriano-Araneta's children were involved in the covert operations of the revolutionary movement, others distinguished themselves in the fields of battle;

Gen. Pablo Soriano Araneta, a Physician-Surgeon by profession, was a member of the Federal Council of the Visayas Republic. He was the Commanding General of the Panay Revolutionary Forces and Chief of the expeditionary forces for the Federal Republic of the Visayas. Gen. Pablo Araneta encountered several fierced battles in Pavia, San Miguel and in the outskirts of Jaro. More notably, the battle of Oton to Arevalo together with Gen. Angel Corteza and Gen. Leandro Locsin Fullon of Antique who fired the first shot. (National Historical Institute marker in honor of Pablo Soriano Araneta - was installed at the facade of Molo Convent facing Molo Plaza in Iloilo City).

Gen. Marciano Soriano Araneta, Administrator of the family-owned Hacienda Paz (named after their mother "Paz") in La Carlota, Negros Occidental, led the revolucionarios valiantly fought and captured the Cuartel General of the Spanish Forces in "Mangkas", now La Carlota City and became one of the founders of the cantonal government of Negros in1899. (National Historical Institute marker in honor of Marciano Soriano Araneta - was installed by the entrance of the old Municipal Building facing La Carlota City Plaza.

Anastacio Soriano Araneta, who served under his elder brother Marciano was killed by remnants of the "guardia civil" who became roving bandits in the hinterlands of Negros after the formal surrender of Spain to the Negros Island Republic on November 5, 1898 that merged on December 2, 1898 with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo.

Jose Soriano Araneta, was appointed "Capitan" assigned at the office of the Panay Revolutionary Forces "Cuartel General" in Pavia, Iloilo together with Capitan Ramon Lopez. He fought in the battle of Tacas, Catmon and Balantang in Jaro in 1899. (National Historical marker in honor of Jose Soriano Araneta - was installed by the entrance of the Municipal Building facing the Pavia Plaza in Iloilo).

Gregorio Soriano Araneta, a lawyer by profession, advocated reforms for the welfare of the Filipino people. He served as Secretary General of Malolos Congress under the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in Luzon. (National Historical Institute marker in honor of Gregorio Soriano Araneta was installed at the facade of No.1030 R. Hidalgo Street, Quiapo, Manila, their ancestral home donated as Museum to the Philippine government)

Other members of the Araneta clan in Iloilo; especially the Aranetas' in Anilao; Eusebio Torres Araneta (brother of "Tan Juan") who settled in Anilao, Iloilo; the group of Casimiro, Emilio, Mariano and Faustino all surnamed Araneta; likewise, Miguel Piccio Araneta of Pototan, Iloilo were all officers of the Panay revolutionary forces actively involved in the fight for freedom and independence against the foreign invaders.
The Negros Island Revolutionary Forces were led by Gen. Juan"Tan Juan"Torres Araneta of the Southern Sector based in Bago, together with his son Col. Jaime Sarmiento Araneta. (National Historical Institute marker in honor of Gen. Juan "Tan Juan" Araneta- was installed by the entrance of their ancestral home in Bago City and his imposing statue mounted on a horse, a revered historical landmark at Bago Plaza).

The Northern Sector was led by Gen. Aniceto Ledesma Lacson married to Rosario Emilia Araneta. (National Historical Institute marker and monument in honor of Gen. Aniceto Ledesma Lacson - was installed in his hometown of Talisay, Negros Occidental).

It is regretable indeed, that the crucial role played by Dr. Vicente Armada Locsin of Janiuay, Iloilo during the 1898 revolution was also relegated in the dustbin of history. He was a Physician-Surgeon who acted as Emisario Confidencial de Inteligencia or Intellegence Emmissary between the Panay and Negros revolutionary governments and reported directly to the Central Revolutionary Committee based in Molo,Iloilo City. This Committee was headed by Don Raymundo Melliza y Angulo composed of Gen. Pablo Araneta y Soriano, Don Francisco Villanueva y Felipe, Gen. Angel Corteza, Don Ramon Avancena and Don Francisco Soriano as members. Dr. Vicente Armada Locsin married Dna. Trinidad Y. Teves and settled permanently in Dumaguete City in Negros Oriental.

It is worthy to note, that in the annals of history, the duly constituted head of the Spanish Empire who colonized the whole archipelago for over 330 years, were defeated and formally surrendered to only two cantonal governments: the Independent Negros Republic on November 6, 1898 in Bacolod City in Negros and to the Federal Republic of the Visayas on December 25, 1898 in Iloilo City in Panay. Both comprised the " Ilonggo Nation".

Likewise, it is interesting to know that only the Araneta family had served in the higher echelons of three revolutionary governments at the same time.

(Acknowledgement: Salamat! to my "Primos" Tonypet and Rolly Araneta for additional info on the early history)


(By: dinggol locsin-araneta divinagracia - S#1.127.723)

Sometime in the middle part of the 18th century:

Between the years 1747 and 1750, from Amoy..old name for Xiamen, an island known in ancient times as "Gateway to China" --in the southern part of Fujian Province at the mouth of Jiulong "nine dragon" River in China; an adventurous young man named Wo Sing Lok or "SING LOK" arrived in the Philippines. He permanently settled at "Parian" now Molo in Iloilo City.
In 1780, Sin Lok was christened as AGUSTIN LOCSIN when he married CECILIA SAYSON, a mestisa daughter of an ilongga and a sangley or local Chinaman who were both devout catholics.

Thus, the LOCSIN LINEAGE began...

Agustin "Sin Lok" Locsin married Cecilia Sayson *S#1.000.000* (The Ancestors)
AGUSTIN "Sin Lok" LOCSIN and CECILIA SAYSON-LOCSIN had six (6) children, namely:

Josef Manuel, Rev. Domingo, Rev. Juan, Rev. Jose, Lucrecia and Silvestra.
The Children: (Spouse/s):
I - JOSEF MANUEL SAYSON LOCSIN-s#1.100.000- -(Juliana Florencia Melliza)

Josef Manuel Sayson Locsin married Juliana Florencia Melliza, by whom he had fourteen (14) children. In 1831 he was instrumental in building the Santa Ana Church in Molo, Iloilo City.
Children: 1/Maxima 2/Ciriaco"Abdon"Manuel 3/Francisca 4/Rev. Roman Manuel 5/Rev. Luis Manuel 6/Rev. Eusebio Manuel 7/Mariano 8/Capitan Ramon 9/Baldomero 10/Lucas 11/Esteban 12/Andres 13/Juan and 14/Tomasa.

II - REV. DOMINGO SAYSON LOCSIN-s#1.200.000 -Second son of "Sin Lok" became the Curate of Bugasong, Antique in the year 1817.
III- REV. JUAN SAYSON LOCSIN-s#1.300.000- -Third son of "Sin Lok" likewise, became the Curate of Bugasong, Antique in 1834. He fathered two (2) children, namely:
1/Lucio Locsin -s#1.310.000- -(Benigna Oliveros)

2/Dionisia Locsin -s#1.320.000- -(Leon Solis)
IV - REV. JOSE SAYSON LOCSIN-s#1.400.000- -Fourth son of "Sin Lok"
V -LUCRECIA SAYSON LOCSIN -s#1.500.000- -Eldest daughter of "Sin Lok" married Francisco Guanzon by whom she had a daughter,named:
1/Silvestra Locsin Guanzon -S#1.510.000- -

VI - SILVESTRA SAYSON LOCSIN -s#1.600.000- -The youngest daughter of "Sin Lok " married Antonio Estrella Araneta, second son of Buenaventura Sta. Ana Araneta (Molo Gobernadorcillo "Alcalde Naturales"-1823)
Nota Bene:
Thanks! to Jeffrey "Sonny" Labayen Abaygar, of the Locsin-Diaz Bacolod Branch for his
initiative in maintaining the Locsin Clan Website at: . Likewise, to Carmen Misa, et al ...for up-dating the family genealogy in cyberspace.

From: Sandra Sotto (By Email)
Date: Nov 26, 2007 5:54 AM
Subject: Layers of Ilonggo Reality

MANILA, Philippines - The book, "Iloilo, a rich and Noble Land," launched last week by the Lopez Group Foundation, uncovers the province's agricultural, civic and social history that interweave to form the multi-layered Ilonggo reality that gives the province and its people such a strong identity.

Ask any Filipino and he will tell you that Iloilo is unlike any other place in the country. She is one of the few places in the Philippines with an identity and image distinct from that of any other province.

Filipinos know Iloilo as the gentle, genteel land of smiles, imagining Iloilo days as unfolding graciously and moving in measured choreography of the rigodón, the outdated, stylized dance ritual highlighting each glittering baile (ball) in moneyed mansions.

Fiesta mode is what Filipinos imagine Iloilo life to be most of the time: laid-back, peaceful, refined and always celebratory.

Another layer of Ilonggo reality overlaps the celebratory layer. Hard-working Ilonggos are vigorously entrepreneurial.

In Iloilo , the moneyed and working classes join in business activities that uphold the province as a vital national economic force, a position first attained with the surge of the sugar industry during the later years of the Spanish colonial era.

The Manila Daily Bulletin reported in September 1907 that the City of Iloilo was "the metropolis of the Visayan Islands , [the] second city of importance in the archipelago and the greatest market for sugar in this part of the world."

Sugar put Iloilo on the map. In the 1850s, Nicholas Loney, a British merchant, settled there and "fostered the opening up of the sugar lands of Panay and Negros." Loney introduced new technology, improved yield, and improved the quality of Iloilo sugar to world-market standards.

For many years Iloilo prosperity was unrivaled, reaching a peak when the irritating delay and occasional damage to cargo caused by transshipment of sugar through the Port of Manila was finally bypassed, and from 1865 produce was exported directly to international points from Iloilo.
"The condition of business in Iloilo largely depends on the size of the sugar crop and the price of the staple," further reported the Manila Daily Bulletin in 1907. When the sugar trade boomed, so did Iloilo. Now known as the Queen City of the South, roads and infrastructure were laid out, hospitals and schools opened.

In 1907, Iloilo was no backwater. " Iloilo has an electric-light plant and the city is well-lighted. There is also an ice factory and cold-storage plant. Among the possibilities of the near future are an up-to-date telephone system and streetcar line connecting all parts of the city.

One institution Iloilo can boast of, that might well be copied in other parts of the archipelago, [is] an up-to-date department store, Hoskyns & Company, a British firm, was established in 1868. In their large store on Calle Real can be found a complete stock of goods at prices, for the most part, far below Manila prices."

Iloilo prosperity was on the rise and the grand planter lifestyle had to be lived in worthy surroundings. Mansions were witness to the opulent moneyed lifestyle that has now all but died out due to 21st-century economic and social realities.

Mansions built on generous plots of land in quiet pre-World War II outskirts were swallowed up without warning by rapid, unregulated urban growth. Now finding themselves situated on valuable city center properties, mansion owners have been forced to reevaluate their properties and lifestyles.

Some downsized to smaller houses, renting out their mansions to commercial tenants. Others built rental buildings on their front lawns to generate additional income, hiding their mansions behind a layer of nondescript commercial structures built right along the street, changing the streetscape forever.

A few simply abandoned their mansions. The postwar years saw many of the moneyed Ilonggos moving out of their downtown mansions into smaller houses.
Mobility, dignity
Today's middle- and working-class homes, smaller and more modest, reflect lifestyle conditions of a majority of Iloilo City residents. Instead of projecting stability and gentility as the old mansions once did, the aura of the middle-class neighborhood is mobility, dignity, work and a strong sense of community.

Unlike the genteel streets of the moneyed class where nobody is seen outside of their fenced gardens, streets in middle- and working-class districts fill with everyday life. Residents live their lives on the street.

The local barangay hall spills out into the street, bringing governance to the people level, as it were. The street is where men hang out, drink or play basketball tournaments. The street is a social center, where the overflow of guests at a neighborhood christening, wedding or funeral is seated.

On the other hand, the rural landscape, dotted with bahay-kubo clustered in barrios and agricultural land, tells another story. To Filipinos, the bahay-kubo are generic, and the Ilonggo house is no exception. But the high level of outstanding bamboo craftsmanship sets the humble Ilonggo kubo far above the typical and generic.

For many generations, Ilonggo craftsmen embroider not with needle and thread but with bamboo. Their bamboo work achieves a play of texture by mixing peeled and unpeeled strips or combining dyed and natural-colored strips handwoven into repeating diamond patterns for the "lowly" sawali matting.

Bamboo sections are scored, flattened and framed for wall panels. They are cut into slats for above-the-ground flooring and stripped into ribbons thin enough for weaving. Absolutely amazing are bamboo slat patterns, grilles of most delicately plaited bamboo lacework executed in fine, hand-embroidery quality.

Ilonggo architectural bamboo craftsmanship, totally unknown and unappreciated, is naïf Ilonggo folk art at its finest.

Iloilo bamboo houses, solid but fragile, enclosed but transparent, embody the observation that the Philippine bahay-kubo is in essence a "basket for living."

Romantic view
There exists a romantic view of downtown Iloilo remaining in a time warp, woven around blocks of superlative, intact 1920s-'40s commercial structures, heritage that gives Iloilo one of the most elegant business areas in the country.

What a graceful, outstanding heritage ensemble, it is probably the best, most extensive remaining collection of heritage commercial buildings in the country.

Buildings of the same height, size and of similar design line streets, a rare but vanishing example of urban unity of architectural scale and style in the Philippines. Building layouts are similar— shophouse-type, two-story rental spaces connected by an arcaded sidewalk.
The style of embellishment indicates the date of construction. Structures from the 1920s are decorated in the feminine, lacy Iloilo wedding-cake style.

The next generation of buildings designed in Art Deco geometry of the 1930s is followed by a post-World War II generation of structures in the robust, no-nonsense 1950s International Style.
Not all downtown buildings in Iloilo are of heritage quality. New shopping destinations coexist with the traditional stores that have always been in the city center, heightening the commercial counterplay between old and new.

An architectural "read" reveals the Iloilo story. A walk through Iloilo today reveals so much more to the city behind the scenes.

Behind a generic-looking commercial building may stand a grand old mansion. Step back (if Iloilo traffic won't run you over) to discover that a covered sidewalk is part of a sagging heritage commercial building, a redoubtable dowager whose better days can once again be relived after a simple nip-and-tuck operation.

Heritage surprises
To really know Iloilo today, one must look beyond the overlapping layers of decay, congestion, chaotic architecture and pockets of wealth existing almost side by side with pockets of poverty. Peel back the multiple layers of architecture, bad architectural facelifts and urban blight for the surprise of your life.

Layer after forgotten layer of the Iloilo story comes to view. Uncover revealing evidence about the city and what her people were like, culturally, socially and economically during key epochs of Iloilo city's rich history.

Walk the downtown area to the point of sensory overload. Suddenly come to the old, majestic Customs House by the Iloilo River, a monument to the former Queen City of the South.
Around the corner, step farther back to a vanishing era. Find a Spanish colonial-era warehouse where young women still twine abaca strands by hand into rope as they have done for centuries.
Iloilo is at a cusp. The city has to deal with the ill effects of progress, traffic, congestion, uncontrolled development, urban sprawl from the conversion of neighboring agricultural land into middle-class subdivisions.

The age of super modernization has set in. Iloilo now boasts of a mix of heritage architecture; modern buildings; up-to-date malls; new inner city and suburban land developments; and, at long last, a brand-new state-of-art airport in neighboring Cabatuan.

Iloilo is alive. Nothing is dormant about her. History and heritage anchor her. They give her an image so singular and unique that no other place in the country has. Her economy provides income-generating activities for anybody in search of it.

Iloilo's layered existence embraces everyone, old or young, moneyed or working class, educated or uneducated. She democratically offers something for everyone.

For inquiries on the book, " Iloilo, A Rich and Noble Land ," call 4545192 or 4545195. E-mail the author at

F o o d s
If you think the gastronomic affairs are over, think again. There you are with a purpose to enjoy the party (also, to share a gift or exchange gifts),. But with due respect to our tradition and indulgence, don't ever hesitate to maintain your fidelity with foods. Reality is that you're not about to give up on the delicious, mouth watering, spicy dishes anytime (what else?).

So if you were lucky last Christmas eve, you can win another `hospital-free ticket' this time. Make the right choice or you can take the express trip to Takubet (the prime destination for people with indigestion or constipation).

You can avoid that trip by:
Choosing the food that does not give you stomach problems.
Reserving some stomach space for the new year's eve episode- another party elsewhere,
tomorrow or later.

Taking the right amount of food by your own serving.
By-passing the cholesterol stuff – by smiling and pretending that you are
diabetic(in case you're not)

Now, in alphabetical(ABC)order, I have listed the following
Pinoy dishes ( maybe or may not be your favorite).
A – fritada : One of the best beef menus my mother loved to cook (without her crutches).
B – akarita : A relative of Afritada. Beef are sliced in big chunks.
C – alamares : Squid Rings. Breaded or plain.
D – inuguan: Never been absent in my in-laws noche buena.
E – mpanada : minced beef, carrots and spices stuffed in a croissant like specialty.
F – ish fillet : Ladies' choice dabbed Lapu-lapu, Tanguige or Tulingan (Fillet ka lang)
G - inataan : Best with bagoong and pork. The merienda version incudes ube, sago and kamote.
H -alo-halo : Always served cold even when its hot. Best with pinipig and condensed milk.
I – nasal : Popular chicken, beef and pork barbecue.
J -os inato: One of a kind chicken barbecue (available of course at JO's)
K- inilaw: (kilawin in tagalog). Choices of pork, shrimp or fish, laman loob atbp.
L- umpia : preparation easy – second to cheese pimiento sandwich(choices of shanghai or basa)
M – enudo: beef cuts are small. A pinoy specialty- long before the popular Menudo singers came to Manila
N-ilaga: Baka, manok, baboy (the animals are killed first, sliced and boiled)
best with lanka or papaya.
O – range juice: fruit punch or mix with rum, substitute for pineapple or grape.
P- ancit: Choices of canton, loglog, malabon or bijon.
Q – ikiam: finger food, deep fried, best served with oyster sauce or ketchup.
R – ebosado: pulutan (a.k.a. Camaron Rebosado) egg or flour coated shrimp or prawn – deep fried.
S – inigang: ( namit ipares sa sinangag)-cook with chili-hot pepper. Mainstays: pork, shrimp, fish.
T- oron : Tagalog origination/ sugar coated fried lumpia or banana filling.
U-tan: (for vegetarians)/good alternative for meat dishes/ cholesterol neutralizer.
V – ihon: choices of guisado or batchoy.
W – hat else?
X-icharon bulaklak: Don't eat this one too much, or you would have bulak in your nose earlier.
Y- ellow Rice : rice with yellow food coloring/mixed with peas, resin, diced meat, oyster, etc.
(Ito ba yong Valenciana? Yup, kapatid ni Paella)
Z-isig: (best for pulutan) sizzling with cheese or cream, minced sili(zarap and zisig ni Zimo)
Huh, are you looking for the lechon? Ha,ha,ha...Happy New Year!!!
(By: Perry Diaz -INM_Banwa_Mo: SacramentoCA-USA)

One day, the father of a very wealthy family took his son on a trip to the country with the express purpose of showing him how poor people live.

They spent a couple of days and nights on the farm of what would be considered a very poor family.
On their return from their trip, the father asked his son, "How was the trip?" "It was great, Dad."
"Did you see how poor people live?" the father asked. "Oh yeah," said the son."So, tell me, what did you learn from the trip?" asked the father.
The son answered: "I saw that we have one dog and they had four.
We have a pool that reaches to the middle of our garden and they have a creek that has no end.
We have imported lanterns in our garden and they have the stars at night.
Our patio reaches to the front yard and they have the whole horizon.
We have a small piece of land to live on and they have fields that go beyond our sight.
We have servants who serve us, but they serve others.
We buy our food, but they grow theirs.
We have walls around our property to protect us, they have friends to protect them."
The boy's father was speechless.Then his son added, "Thanks Dad for showing me how poor we are."
Isn't perspective a wonderful thing? Makes you wonder what would happen if we all gave thanks for everything we have, instead of worrying about what we don't have.
-- Unknown Author