Ang Republika Federal sg Kabisay-an (The Federal Republic of the Visayas)

Historical Facts obviously omitted or deliberately hidden in our School History Books
(Source: History Reborn"The Federal Republic of the Visayas" -by: dinggol a.divinagracia*June 12, 2007)

*That Spain had already formally surrendered to the Federal Republic of the Visayas even before Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed Philippine President in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899. That our Independent Visayan Republic, had never been under the authority and jurisdiction of Aguinaldo's "Katagalogan" Republic in Luzon.

excerpted: "...A paper written by Jose Manuel Velmonte, a research associate at the UP Third World Studies Center, found that the Visayan revolutionary elites not only had sophisticated political ideas but also resented attempts by Malolos to assert its authority. A Tagalog military expedition sent by Malolos to Panay to assert its presence was met with hostility. The Luzon force led by Generals Ananias Diocno and Leandro Fullon was regarded by the Visayan revolutionaries, led by the Visayan supremo, Gen. Martin Delgado, as an ''invasion'' force ..." (Source: Inquirer-1999- 06-13 "View of revolt in provinces spurs revision" By: Amando Doronila)

According to Dr. Luis C.Dery, an eminent Filipino Scholar: "Expounding the extent of Aguinaldo's Philippine Army; the Bangsamoro nation's Mindanao, Sulu, and the rest of its islands never fell under Aguinaldo's politico-military control and sovereignty. In fact as late as August 1898 much of northern Luzon, southern Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao remained outside of the control of Aguinaldo's Republic. Thus, several military expeditions were sent to these places to bring' them to recognize the First Philippine Republic."

*That the 1898 Treaty of Paris preliminaries, should not have included territories of the sovereign "Visayan Nation"; the confederation of both the Central and Western Visayas Cantonal Governments by virtue of Spain's formal surrender prior to this U.S. and Spain treaty of peace (Paris) and the $20-million buy-out. Spain had no more legal rights to sell. In legal parlance "nemodat quod non habet” -meaning “you cannot give what is not yours”.

This diplomatic "Faux pas" that was supposed to be officially consummated and became legal and internationally binding only on APRIL 11, 1899 should, or rather must be rectified.
*June 12, 1898 -Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite --but never won the war against Spain, as explained in the infamous betrayal --the "Mock Battle of Manila of August 13, 1898".

*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)

excerpted: "...These two nations, from a purely legal point of view, are COMPLETELY LEGITIMATE UNTIL TODAY. This could imply that the Manila-based Tagalista-oriented Unitarian central government of the Philippines in the Visayas and Mindanao is an Occupational Government, that ultimately originated from an invalid Treaty of Paris...."

Dr. Jose P. Dacudao; National President -Save Our Languages thru Federalism Foundation (SOLFED), Inc.

*July 4, 1946 -The United States of America granted Philippine Independence on a silver platter with strings attached.

"True Independence could never be just self-proclaimed nor bestowed upon, it has to be won and duly achieved with dignity" -- dinggol araneta divinagracia (Founder: Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network ..Dec. 25, 2005)

*A lover of nature and reform activities by profession; a genealogist and environmentalist by avocation. A Cooperative Movement advocate, history buff and an amateur "newbie" writer)

"It is rather speculative as it is without basis of history if we mean of "history" is that which had been written for us by the "tutas" or lackeys of our colonial and imperial masters.." -- Benjie Evicner Estuche (INM Co-Founder)

The Cooperative Movement-"It is not the best way, it is the onlyway"..
Join the Last Laugh with us!

*When Christopher Columbus said that the world is round, people asked -What? and then they laughed.

*When the Wright brothers said they'll fly and soar the skies, people asked -How? and then they laughed.

*When Jules Verne wrote someday man could travel below the seven seas and shall walk on the moon, people asked - When? and then they laughed.

*When John the Baptist prophesied the coming of the Messiah, people asked -Who? and then they laughed.

*When the Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network announced its mission and vision, people did not even bother to ask, What? How? When? or Who? --They just laughed and laughed. *People are still laughing, ...but the laughter is fading!

ang inyo alagad... sa guihapon ...dinggol a. divinagracia~~~

email address:

To join! As a start, visit FACEBOOK: Ilonggo Nation Movement website .. (Non-ilonggos who share our advocacy are welcome)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)
*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)
Ergo! we won our battle-scarred freedom and legitimate independence and became a sovereign nation. The "First" Republic in the whole of Asia, but was nipped-in-the bud by the ugly Americans. A diplomatic faux pas, a political blunder and a travesty of history! --dinggol.d~~~


Claim Your Birth Right!

*Estado Federal de Bisayas*

*Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network, precursor of the Ilonggo Nation Global Federation*

“To appreciate where you are now, you should know where you came from.”

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Saturday, July 25, 2015

The younger version of Ilonggos in San Diego, CA. USA (LtoR): Pia, Josh and Mick..

Ang futuro sang "Pungsod Ilonggo" diri sa sunny SanDie Californy, Padayon!!!! -dinggol.d~~~

History repeats itself. Historians repeat each other. ~ Philip Guedalla 

(Photo LtoR): Dinggol  Araneta Divinagracia, Hon. Demy Sonza and Nereo Cajilig Lujan.

"Padayon ang Pungsod Ilonggo!"

~~~~~~~~~~~ oo0oo ~~~~~~~~~~


Photo (LtoR): Gina Barte (Phil. Representative to ICOM); Dinggol Araneta Divinagracia (INGFED); Gina Sarabia Espinosa (Museo Iloilo EVP/Board); James Mozart Amsua (Museo Iloilo Curator) and Jose Nereo C. Lujan (Chief, Public Information & Community Affairs Office-Province of Iloilo)

June 26, 2015: Initial meeting facilitated by Dinggol Araneta Divinagracia at the Museo Iloilo, to discuss possibility of the International Council of Museums (ICOM) Asia Pacific 2015 Conference and General Assembly to be held in Iloilo City, Philippines on December 4-7, 2015. With the Theme on Pathways for Museums for Sustainable Societies. Thereafter, the follow-ups in Manila with appropriate officials have been relatively encouraging. Kabay pa! --dinggol.d~~~

Thursday, July 23, 2015

Don Diego de la Viña, the forgotten Revolutionary Hero from Guihulngan, Negros Oriental deserves a Statue or at least a Historical Marker in Guihulngan City Plaza. --dinggol.d~~~

Excerpted from: The Long "Ilonggo" Journey (by: dinggol araneta divinagracia at "Ang Pungsod Ilonggo" INM eNewsletter - March 5, 2008)

" ....(Negros Oriental)

In Guihulngan, Ben Bacalso Ricarte told me that the mother of Ilokano revolutionary leader Gen. Artemio "Vibora" Ricarte (who never pledged allegiance to the U.S.) was from Mambusao, Capiz. This I have to check.

Rey Serion of Vallehermoso, great grandson of Don Diego de la Viña informed me that "Don Diego" had three daughters, who married a Serion, a Morales and a Villegas. He also said the historical marker in his honor was put up in Dumaguete City only very recently (2008).

Don Diego de la Viña, a Manila born Spanish-Chinese mestizo who married a wealthy Ilongga, owned large tracts of land in Negros Island including Hacienda Vallehermoso in Guihulngan. He led the revolucionarios who defeated the Spanish authorities in Dumaguete City. (As contained in "A Chronology: The Ilonggo Nation" first posted in INM website on December 25, 2005).

It should also be noted, that the Bacolod City historical marker commemorating Spain's formal surrender to the Negros cantonal government was also erected in Bacolod City only after 109 years on November 6, 2007 ---after the afore-mentioned INM article was published. The Negros Occidental Provincial Information Office under the late Gov. Joseph Maranon acknowledged INM's article contribution...."

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

A Glimpse of Ilonggo History: Dr. Vicente Armada Locsin

The "Comite de Conspiradores" initiated by Don Francisco Felipe Villanueva and headed by Don Raymundo Angulo Melliza was formed in Parian, now Molo in Iloilo, on March 18, 1898. The members were "Parianons" that included; Pablo Araneta, Fernando Salas, Francisco Soriano, Jovito Yusay and from Jaro; Roque Lopez and Simon Ledesma. This became the nucleus that started the highly disciplined and well organized covert revolutionary movement in the Island of Panay. Five months later, together with the revolutionary leaders outside the City led by Capitan Martin Delgado of Santa Barbara, they formed a revolutionary government and thus, the "Estado Federal de Bisayas" was conceived.

Thereafter, Gen. Roque Lopez, the elected President of the Assembly and Gen. Pablo Araneta, Panay Island Commanding General and Chief Expeditionary Forces for the Visayas and other leaders of the Movement secretly maintained liaison with their relatives and friends in Negros and nearby provinces to start the armed uprising in their areas. More notably, the brothers Col. Emilio and Col. Eduardo Esteban as commissioned by the Chief of Staff, Gen. Pablo Araneta of the Visayas Expeditionary Forces.

Dr. Vicente Armada Locsin, of Janiuay, Iloilo acted as Confidential Intelligence Emissary Officer of the Central Revolutionary Committe based in Molo, Iloilo and coordinated with the Panay and Negros revolutionary councils.

Later, Dr. Vicente Armada Locsin married Dña. Trinidad Teves and settled permanently in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental. Above-photos show their heritage home along the street named in his honor.   --dinggol.d~~~

Sunday, July 12, 2015

The Untold Story of the Philippine Revolution.

The Untold Story of the Philippine Revolution.

The leadership of Aguinaldo imposed on the revolutionary masses was all along illustrado, meaning, coming from the elite of the Philippine society of that time. The assasination of the Bonifacio brothers of Tondo, Manila; Gen. Antonio Luna of Ilocandia; perhaps, even of Pantaleon "Leon Kilat" Villegas of Negros Oriental in Cebu, et al.. completed the elitist design to wrestle the revolutionary leadership from the plebian to the landed illustrados of Cavite to pave the way for a dictatorial government.

For all intents and purposes, the surrender of the Spaniards to the American forces at the Bagumbayan field should only be construed as those territories which were under the sphere of influence of the Aguinaldo forces. Resistance continued in some parts of Luzon under Gen. Miguel Malvar of Batangas and Gen. Artemio Ricarte of IIocus Sur as well as  the forces led by Gen. Servillano Aquino of Tarlac, grandfather of the late Ninoy Aquino. Malvar declared  his own Philippine Republic in Sto. Tomas, Batangas  and a series of declaration of independence of pocket republics from Southern Luzon to the Visayas and Northern Mindanao followed including those that were cited by Agurang Dinggol Araneta Divinagracia.

The Treaty of Paris (TOP) covered the whole Philippine Archipelago as the country was considered owned by the King of Spain under the stewardship of the Encomienderos and the Catholic Church which collected taxes for the Spanish royalty although their collection were sent to the Vatican in the form of tithes called Peter's Pence. After all, it was Pope Alexander VI (of the infamous Borgia Spanish Papal Mafia) who authorized the spread of Catholicism to the South Americas and the Far East Asia by dividing the discoverable world into hemispheric areas under the maritime powers from the Iberian Peninsula: Spain and Portugal. Historian Sonia Magbanua Zaide flounts this fact that we were blessed to be under Spanish influence rather than the more barbaric Portuguese.

Who, then, received the $20 million from the government of the United States should be made to account for the territories being ceded under the TOP because of the "prior surrender" of Governor-General  Diego de los Rios, the last duly constituted Spanish authority in the Philippine archipelego  to the Revolutionary Forces of the Republic of the Visayas. Surely, it was the representative of the Spanish monarchy who did not forget that the Philippines were owned by Spain in the name of God which is the reason why the religious orders existing in the country by that time became owners of large landed estates even up to now.

Efforts should be made towards letting Spain realize this diplomatic faux pas.The residual government of Spain should correct this error in history and start to amplify to the world its recognition of the "Estado Federal de Bisayas" spearheaded by the "Ilonggo Nation" during those revolutionary times. The Vatican should also follow up this move otherwise they should surrender all their real estate holdings in the territories of the Republic of the Visayas and give these to the poor and the landless. They owe this to God whose name they used when they discovered the archipelago.

This is the mission brought upon the shoulder of the Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network, precursor of The Ilonggo Nation Global Federation.

AGURANG AMIN (INM Co-Founder)-(Oklahoma, USA)



Agurang Dinggol,

Salamat, ti ari na gid ko ya.

Nindot ning ginsiling mo: "In short, I would still prefer to believe history handed down from generation to generation rather than from any Tom, Dick and Harry."

Mopati gid ko nimo nga:

1. "History"is handed down from generation to generation. On-going "history" is handed down from communities or families from one generation to the next.

2. Families or communities of Tom, Dick and Harry hand down their victor's version of history. On the other hand, the likes of 'Paguntalan' hand down their own version of history to their offsprings' generation and the next.

3. There are different interpretations of 'history'. Which 'history' do you prefer to believe? Which interpretations? Which re-interpretations?

4. The point is: 'history' as an interpretation depends on the interpreters. It depends on the parents, their offsprings and the next generation of families, how they understand and judge the experience being passed on from parents and ancestors. It depends on the 'integrity' or truthfulness of the interpreters. It depends on the authenticity of the interpreters(ancestors and offsprings, the historians), that is, depending on their level of attentiveness to experience and research, level of understanding of what actually happened, use of reason for right judgment, and level of responsibility and success on passing it on to the next generation.

And would it be received successfully, rightly and intelligently by the next generations, givent the records and stories?

5. Nevertheless, what is being interpreted are the facts or evidence of 'history' (or lack of it. ). Thus, 'history' as what actually happened is the answer of questions, such as what actually happened in such a place in such a time in such persons or community? True 'historians go beyond interpretations to get the right judgment of what actually happened with the use of reason and rationality. Previous interpretations are continuously disproven or reinterpreted in the light of new understanding given the discovery of the new data or evidence, until they get the right judgment on what actually happened, on the first place, in that place, in that moment of history.

6. Generally speaking, We, who should be (supposedly) attentive, intelligent, rational and responsible human beings do experience, understand, know and responsibly live in this constantly changing and historical world!

7. Lived history is ongoing. It has moments in the past and continuing moments of today in the lives of communities. Communites have common meanings and understandings of truths to be passed on for the following generations or communities who would successfully (or unsuccessfully) receive and pass them on. If one generation today die without passing them on, if the records and evidence are destoryed and lost, buried in time and oblivion, then their story or 'history is cut off, the previous chapters are lost, and the values and meanings that have to be passed on are not received by the next generation of 'witnesses' and interpreters and carriers of history. The lived story or history can't go on, can't move forward.

8. Like the story of Jesus too. If he had no disciples nor followers, then no one would have heared him, understood him, believed in his truth, and wrote or passed on his 'good news' . Thanks to the witnessing of the communities that continually pass on the story of Jesus through the retelling of his story in words and action, and specially in lived witness. Yet, even Jesus said 'blessed are those who believe even though they have not seen him'. Those who came to believe but have not seen him came to believe in the truth of Jesus through the living witness of his followers, disciples and believers through out history.

9. They came to believe in the light of faith. They came to believe through their own experience, understanding, judgment of the veracity of Jesus' story. They have been experiencing and living in faith and knowledge of his undying love and care for them concretized in the faithful witnessing communities and individual Christians. If there were no living witnesses nor scriptures nor traditions of Christian communities from the early history of early Christianity, the martyrs and church fathers, the mytics and monks, the religous and the laity through medieval times up to modern times, who believed Jesus' story, then it would would have been lost or ended in oblivion long time ago.

10. But the story does end or it could end if only one generation refuses to receive and pass it on, or preserve its records and traditions to be given and reinterpreted for the next generations.

11. Same story for the Ilonggo Nation Movement. It has a story, moments in the past and still on-going now in the reinterpreting and knowing of what actually happened. But it could end soon, if this generation fails to pass on or retell or reinterpret the story. It fails if one generation fails to faithfully live out the values and meanings that have been received from parents and communities.

12. In hope, may the young generation and the next understand and own the story, their history, their cultural values and received traditions. Hopefully, it will be received through the language or symbols or perspectives appropriate for Toto and Inday, easy to be deeply understood by the 'pakaisa' ug 'pakaduha', to be true to the Ilonggo people, true to their own perspective as a nation. You just wonder what people's vision, world view, meaning, joy, texture, sensitivities and sentiments and jokes and all the rest are gone or off, when the nation's language is diminished or gone extinct. Or not spoken anymore.

Ti, sayang gid. Namit tani ang tono kag pamatyag.

"kon di ka mapati sa akon ginasiling, ti, ikaw ang 'magsiling' ako ang mapati",
Agurang Akoy (INM- Shanghai, China)