The leadership of Aguinaldo imposed on the revolutionary masses was all along illustrado, meaning, coming from the elite of the Philippine society of that time. The assasination of the Bonifacio brothers of Tondo, Manila; Gen. Antonio Luna of Ilocandia; perhaps, even of Pantaleon "Leon Kilat" Villegas of Negros Oriental in Cebu, et al.. completed the elitist design to wrestle the revolutionary leadership from the plebian to the landed illustrados of Cavite to pave the way for a dictatorial government.
For all intents and purposes, the surrender of the Spaniards to the American forces at the Bagumbayan field should only be construed as those territories which were under the sphere of influence of the Aguinaldo forces. Resistance continued in some parts of Luzon under Gen. Miguel Malvar of Batangas and Gen. Artemio Ricarte of IIocus Sur as well as the forces led by Gen. Servillano Aquino of Tarlac, grandfather of the late Ninoy Aquino. Malvar declared his own Philippine Republic in Sto. Tomas, Batangas and a series of declaration of independence of pocket republics from Southern Luzon to the Visayas and Northern Mindanao followed including those that were cited by Agurang Dinggol Araneta Divinagracia.
The Treaty of Paris (TOP) covered the whole Philippine Archipelago as the country was considered owned by the King of Spain under the stewardship of the Encomienderos and the Catholic Church which collected taxes for the Spanish royalty although their collection were sent to the Vatican in the form of tithes called Peter's Pence. After all, it was Pope Alexander VI (of the infamous Borgia Spanish Papal Mafia) who authorized the spread of Catholicism to the South Americas and the Far East Asia by dividing the discoverable world into hemispheric areas under the maritime powers from the Iberian Peninsula: Spain and Portugal. Historian Sonia Magbanua Zaide flounts this fact that we were blessed to be under Spanish influence rather than the more barbaric Portuguese.
Who, then, received the $20 million from the government of the United States should be made to account for the territories being ceded under the TOP because of the "prior surrender" of Governor-General Diego de los Rios, the last duly constituted Spanish authority in the Philippine archipelego to the Revolutionary Forces of the Republic of the Visayas. Surely, it was the representative of the Spanish monarchy who did not forget that the Philippines were owned by Spain in the name of God which is the reason why the religious orders existing in the country by that time became owners of large landed estates even up to now.
Efforts should be made towards letting Spain realize this diplomatic faux pas.The residual government of Spain should correct this error in history and start to amplify to the world its recognition of the "Estado Federal de Bisayas" spearheaded by the "Ilonggo Nation" during those revolutionary times. The Vatican should also follow up this move otherwise they should surrender all their real estate holdings in the territories of the Republic of the Visayas and give these to the poor and the landless. They owe this to God whose name they used when they discovered the archipelago.
This is the mission brought upon the shoulder of the Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network, precursor of The Ilonggo Nation Global Federation.
AGURANG AMIN (INM Co-Founder)-(Oklahoma, USA)