Ang Republika Federal sg Kabisay-an (The Federal Republic of the Visayas)

Historical Facts obviously omitted or deliberately hidden in our School History Books
(Source: History Reborn"The Federal Republic of the Visayas" -by: dinggol a.divinagracia*June 12, 2007)

*That Spain had already formally surrendered to the Federal Republic of the Visayas even before Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed Philippine President in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899. That our Independent Visayan Republic, had never been under the authority and jurisdiction of Aguinaldo's "Katagalogan" Republic in Luzon.

excerpted: "...A paper written by Jose Manuel Velmonte, a research associate at the UP Third World Studies Center, found that the Visayan revolutionary elites not only had sophisticated political ideas but also resented attempts by Malolos to assert its authority. A Tagalog military expedition sent by Malolos to Panay to assert its presence was met with hostility. The Luzon force led by Generals Ananias Diocno and Leandro Fullon was regarded by the Visayan revolutionaries, led by the Visayan supremo, Gen. Martin Delgado, as an ''invasion'' force ..." (Source: Inquirer-1999- 06-13 "View of revolt in provinces spurs revision" By: Amando Doronila)

According to Dr. Luis C.Dery, an eminent Filipino Scholar: "Expounding the extent of Aguinaldo's Philippine Army; the Bangsamoro nation's Mindanao, Sulu, and the rest of its islands never fell under Aguinaldo's politico-military control and sovereignty. In fact as late as August 1898 much of northern Luzon, southern Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao remained outside of the control of Aguinaldo's Republic. Thus, several military expeditions were sent to these places to bring' them to recognize the First Philippine Republic."

*That the 1898 Treaty of Paris preliminaries, should not have included territories of the sovereign "Visayan Nation"; the confederation of both the Central and Western Visayas Cantonal Governments by virtue of Spain's formal surrender prior to this U.S. and Spain treaty of peace (Paris) and the $20-million buy-out. Spain had no more legal rights to sell. In legal parlance "nemodat quod non habet” -meaning “you cannot give what is not yours”.

This diplomatic "Faux pas" that was supposed to be officially consummated and became legal and internationally binding only on APRIL 11, 1899 should, or rather must be rectified.
*June 12, 1898 -Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite --but never won the war against Spain, as explained in the infamous betrayal --the "Mock Battle of Manila of August 13, 1898".

*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)

excerpted: "...These two nations, from a purely legal point of view, are COMPLETELY LEGITIMATE UNTIL TODAY. This could imply that the Manila-based Tagalista-oriented Unitarian central government of the Philippines in the Visayas and Mindanao is an Occupational Government, that ultimately originated from an invalid Treaty of Paris...."

Dr. Jose P. Dacudao; National President -Save Our Languages thru Federalism Foundation (SOLFED), Inc.

*July 4, 1946 -The United States of America granted Philippine Independence on a silver platter with strings attached.

"True Independence could never be just self-proclaimed nor bestowed upon, it has to be won and duly achieved with dignity" -- dinggol araneta divinagracia (Founder: Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network ..Dec. 25, 2005)

*A lover of nature and reform activities by profession; a genealogist and environmentalist by avocation. A Cooperative Movement advocate, history buff and an amateur "newbie" writer)

"It is rather speculative as it is without basis of history if we mean of "history" is that which had been written for us by the "tutas" or lackeys of our colonial and imperial masters.." -- Benjie Evicner Estuche (INM Co-Founder)

The Cooperative Movement-"It is not the best way, it is the onlyway"..
Join the Last Laugh with us!

*When Christopher Columbus said that the world is round, people asked -What? and then they laughed.

*When the Wright brothers said they'll fly and soar the skies, people asked -How? and then they laughed.

*When Jules Verne wrote someday man could travel below the seven seas and shall walk on the moon, people asked - When? and then they laughed.

*When John the Baptist prophesied the coming of the Messiah, people asked -Who? and then they laughed.

*When the Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network announced its mission and vision, people did not even bother to ask, What? How? When? or Who? --They just laughed and laughed. *People are still laughing, ...but the laughter is fading!

ang inyo alagad... sa guihapon ...dinggol a. divinagracia~~~

email address:

To join! As a start, visit FACEBOOK: Ilonggo Nation Movement website .. (Non-ilonggos who share our advocacy are welcome)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)
*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)
Ergo! we won our battle-scarred freedom and legitimate independence and became a sovereign nation. The "First" Republic in the whole of Asia, but was nipped-in-the bud by the ugly Americans. A diplomatic faux pas, a political blunder and a travesty of history! --dinggol.d~~~


Claim Your Birth Right!

*Estado Federal de Bisayas*

*Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network, precursor of the Ilonggo Nation Global Federation*

“To appreciate where you are now, you should know where you came from.”

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Tuesday, February 06, 2018

(By: dinggol araneta divinagracia -Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) -December 2, 2007)
Federalism in the Philippines was first articulated by the ilonggos during the 1898 Revolution. The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas and Mindanao; proclaimed during the November 17th “Cry of Sta. Barbara” in Iloilo, was replaced by the revolutionary leaders on November 23, 1898 to a politico-military government composed only of the Visayas.

They preferred instead a federal arrangement composed of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao as a logical substitute because of its indigenous elements.

On December 2, 1898, after series of serious discussions and thorough deliberations, with the merger of the Central and Western Visayas Cantonal Governments --the Panay government, based in Iloilo was renamed "Estado Federal de Bisayas" or Federal Republic of the Visayas, patterned after the U.S. Federal and Cantonal government of the Swiss Confederation.

Earlier, Gen. Roque Lopez and Gen. Pablo Araneta of Iloilo secretly maintained liaison with their “Parientes“ and friends in Negros Island, namely; Gen. Aniceto Lacson of Talisay, Gen. Juan “Tan Juan” Araneta of Bago, Gen. Marciano Araneta of La Carlota, Gen. Leandro Locsin of Silay and others to start the armed uprising against the Spanish forces in their respective areas.

Gen. Pablo Araneta, a Physician-Surgeon by profession, as Panay Island Commanding General and Chief-Expeditionary Forces for the Visayas under Martin Delgado (Gen-en-Gefe), commissioned Colonels Eduardo and Emilio Esteban to coordinate with other Visayan Revolucionarios. While the Negros revolutionary leadership also assigned Gen. Pantaleon “Leon Kilat“ Villegas of Bacong, Negros Oriental to organize the Cebuano patriots and join in the revolution.
It is worthy to note, that evidently --the Spanish Government in the Philippines, formally surrendered to both the Independent Negros Republic on November 6, 1898 and to the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF THE VISAYAS on December 23rd of the same year.
It is regrettable, however, to note that the heroic triumph of the Visayan Patriots who successfully established an independent, sovereign and legitimate Nation-State, became a travesty of history --when modern imperialism substituted centuries of colonialism.
Adding insult to injury, minions and lackeys of the victors relegated this events to the dustbin of history; forgotten in the memories of the young; to be erased in the minds of future generations.
Hence, the Ilonggo Nation Movement's bold attempt to revive this glorious era of the yesteryears and commemorate --the birth of Federalism in the Philippines.
Here's an anniversary comment taken from Manuel Luis Quezon-III(MLQ3) blogsite:
"Manolo, Resil Mojares’s paper delivered at the recent conference on Political Reform and Charter Change, says the Ilonggos (even before the birth of Salvador Araneta) first articulated the federalist dream. He says that in 1898, leaders in Iloilo formed the Federal State of the Visayas, anticipating that a Federal Republic of the Philippines, composed of three states — Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao — would be formed by the Aguinaldo government.
Mojares further points out that in 1899, some “eminent” Filipinos submitted to the Philippine Commission a draft for a Federal Republic of the Philippines with 11 states. The Ilocano intellectual Isabelo de los Reyes also proposed in 1900 a federal constitution with 7 states.
The Tagalogs, of course, were not dreaming of federalism but of a unitary state, with themselves at the helm.
(Sheila Coronel said this on July 29th, 2005 at 3:57 pm)
After the November 6th “Acta de Capitulacion-1898” in Negros Island.
On Nov. 26, 1898, in a meeting of the Negros island cantonal government, Gen. Juan "Tan Juan" Araneta sponsored a resolution which was uninamously approved to set up a Federal Republic. "I proposed, that this island, after having attained its liberty and independence by means of a brilliant feat of arms, thus winning an honorable place in the concert of civilized nations, be governed by prestigious men in our country who knows its needs and understand its glorious ideals. For this reason I believe that the best government to realize the beautiful aspiration of our island, which is also that of the entire Filipino people, is that of a Federal Republic." This approved resolution was documented by Don Melecio Severino -Secretary General.
The Aguinaldo Dictatorship and the Malolos Republic:
The Visayan leaders recognized Aguinaldo's revolutionary government, since it was for a Federal Republic of the Philippines, with a Federal State each for Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Later, however, on May 24th of 1898 upon the advice of Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, an autocratic regime was established with Emilio Aguinaldo as dictator.
This move was oppossed by Aguinaldos adviser, Apolinario Mabini of Batangas, considered as the "Brain of the Revolution" and he was supported by all the Visayan leaders. However, on the 12th of June, 1898, under this dictatorship Philippine Independence was proclaimed in Kawit, Cavite. This proclamation was not recognized by Spain, the United States nor by any other foreign nation.
Consequently, on January 21,1899 Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the Malolos Republic with a Constitution drafted by Ilonggo Don Gregorio S. Araneta- Secretary General and other illustrados of the congress held in Malolos, Bulacan. Two days later, on the 23rd, the First Philippine Republic with Emilio Aguinaldo as President was formally inaugurated and the Constitution ratified in Malolos, Bulacan.
And the rest, sabi dah! is history. --dinggol.d~~~

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