Ang Republika Federal sg Kabisay-an (The Federal Republic of the Visayas)

Historical Facts obviously omitted or deliberately hidden in our School History Books
(Source: History Reborn"The Federal Republic of the Visayas" -by: dinggol a.divinagracia*June 12, 2007)

*That Spain had already formally surrendered to the Federal Republic of the Visayas even before Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed Philippine President in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899. That our Independent Visayan Republic, had never been under the authority and jurisdiction of Aguinaldo's "Katagalogan" Republic in Luzon.

excerpted: "...A paper written by Jose Manuel Velmonte, a research associate at the UP Third World Studies Center, found that the Visayan revolutionary elites not only had sophisticated political ideas but also resented attempts by Malolos to assert its authority. A Tagalog military expedition sent by Malolos to Panay to assert its presence was met with hostility. The Luzon force led by Generals Ananias Diocno and Leandro Fullon was regarded by the Visayan revolutionaries, led by the Visayan supremo, Gen. Martin Delgado, as an ''invasion'' force ..." (Source: Inquirer-1999- 06-13 "View of revolt in provinces spurs revision" By: Amando Doronila)

According to Dr. Luis C.Dery, an eminent Filipino Scholar: "Expounding the extent of Aguinaldo's Philippine Army; the Bangsamoro nation's Mindanao, Sulu, and the rest of its islands never fell under Aguinaldo's politico-military control and sovereignty. In fact as late as August 1898 much of northern Luzon, southern Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao remained outside of the control of Aguinaldo's Republic. Thus, several military expeditions were sent to these places to bring' them to recognize the First Philippine Republic."

*That the 1898 Treaty of Paris preliminaries, should not have included territories of the sovereign "Visayan Nation"; the confederation of both the Central and Western Visayas Cantonal Governments by virtue of Spain's formal surrender prior to this U.S. and Spain treaty of peace (Paris) and the $20-million buy-out. Spain had no more legal rights to sell. In legal parlance "nemodat quod non habet” -meaning “you cannot give what is not yours”.

This diplomatic "Faux pas" that was supposed to be officially consummated and became legal and internationally binding only on APRIL 11, 1899 should, or rather must be rectified.
*June 12, 1898 -Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite --but never won the war against Spain, as explained in the infamous betrayal --the "Mock Battle of Manila of August 13, 1898".

*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)

excerpted: "...These two nations, from a purely legal point of view, are COMPLETELY LEGITIMATE UNTIL TODAY. This could imply that the Manila-based Tagalista-oriented Unitarian central government of the Philippines in the Visayas and Mindanao is an Occupational Government, that ultimately originated from an invalid Treaty of Paris...."

Dr. Jose P. Dacudao; National President -Save Our Languages thru Federalism Foundation (SOLFED), Inc.

*July 4, 1946 -The United States of America granted Philippine Independence on a silver platter with strings attached.

"True Independence could never be just self-proclaimed nor bestowed upon, it has to be won and duly achieved with dignity" -- dinggol araneta divinagracia (Founder: Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network ..Dec. 25, 2005)

*A lover of nature and reform activities by profession; a genealogist and environmentalist by avocation. A Cooperative Movement advocate, history buff and an amateur "newbie" writer)

"It is rather speculative as it is without basis of history if we mean of "history" is that which had been written for us by the "tutas" or lackeys of our colonial and imperial masters.." -- Benjie Evicner Estuche (INM Co-Founder)

The Cooperative Movement-"It is not the best way, it is the onlyway"..
Join the Last Laugh with us!

*When Christopher Columbus said that the world is round, people asked -What? and then they laughed.

*When the Wright brothers said they'll fly and soar the skies, people asked -How? and then they laughed.

*When Jules Verne wrote someday man could travel below the seven seas and shall walk on the moon, people asked - When? and then they laughed.

*When John the Baptist prophesied the coming of the Messiah, people asked -Who? and then they laughed.

*When the Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network announced its mission and vision, people did not even bother to ask, What? How? When? or Who? --They just laughed and laughed. *People are still laughing, ...but the laughter is fading!

ang inyo alagad... sa guihapon ...dinggol a. divinagracia~~~

email address:

To join! As a start, visit FACEBOOK: Ilonggo Nation Movement website .. (Non-ilonggos who share our advocacy are welcome)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)
*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)
Ergo! we won our battle-scarred freedom and legitimate independence and became a sovereign nation. The "First" Republic in the whole of Asia, but was nipped-in-the bud by the ugly Americans. A diplomatic faux pas, a political blunder and a travesty of history! --dinggol.d~~~


Claim Your Birth Right!

*Estado Federal de Bisayas*

*Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network, precursor of the Ilonggo Nation Global Federation*

“To appreciate where you are now, you should know where you came from.”

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Thursday, June 21, 2007

(The Ilonggo “Nation” Movement Newsletter)
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* Volume No. I * Issue No. 001 * Date: June 21, 2007*
(By: dinggol a.divinagracia - INM Banwa_Mo - June 12, 2007)

In early December 2005, while collating my first article -- A Chronology: "The Ilonggo Nation"; I have come to realize that ignored and relegated in the dustbin of history, are important events of the yesteryears that were never taught in our classrooms nor written in school books ---that deserved proper attention and due recognition.

How and why these glorious moments in the past are forgotten and lost to oblivion boggles my mind, viz:

1) Is it because history is for the victors? --did their minions and lackeys wrote our history books deliberately designed, so future generations would never learn that Spain had already formally surrendered to the Visayan revolucionarios even before American invaders trampled our sacred shores?

That our independence in the Visayas were achieved with dignity by our forefathers who won their freedom in the fields of battle after over 330 years of Spanish domination and subjugation --and not during the unsubstantiated June 12, 1898 self-proclamation nor on a silver platter during the July 4, 1946 celebration?

"True Independence could never be just self-proclaimed nor bestowed upon, it has to be won and duly achieved."

2) Perhaps, to fullfill our manifest destiny as viewed by modern imperialism that substituted centuries of colonialism --or sheer ignorance, that our infant independent Visayas Republic, although already free from Spain, was still included in the $20-million purchase of the "Islas" under the Treaty of Paris.

3) Or maybe, it's another deceptive agenda like the "Mock Battle of Manila" when Luzon Revolucionarios under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, could have also won their independence if not for the betrayal by his American allies.

Chronology of Events:

-Nov. 5, 1898: Gen. Juan"Tan Juan"Araneta y Torres and Gen. Aniceto Lacson y Ledesma declared the Independent Negros Republic in Bago Plaza, Negros Occidental when Spanish authorities capitulated.

Col. Isidro de Castro, the Spanish Politico-Military Governor in Negros Island surrendered after the revolucionarios captured the Spanish "Cuartel General" in Bago, Cadiz, Silay, Manapla, La Carlota and other strategic towns including Bais and Dumaguete, Negros Oriental led by Don Diego de la Vina.

Earlier, Gen. Pantaleon "Leon Kilat" Villegas of Bacong, Negros Oriental was assigned by Gen. Juan Araneta to make contacts and coordinate with the revolucionarios in Cebu. To this day, the result of this mission-order remains unclear.

Excerpted from: Leon Kilat and the Cebu Revolution at:

"...The beginings of the revolutionary movement in Cebu is still not very clear. There are reports that Tagalog katipuneros had a strong influence in shaping the events leading to the uprising which finally drove out the Spaniards in December 1898........ But the Cebu chapter seemed to lack a solid leadership. It had to have an outsider to provide the organization an adequate leadership. The man who was expected by the locals was Pantaleon Villegas or more popularly known as "Leon Kilat."...."

-Nov. 6, 1898: Formal signing of surrender documents by Governor-General Don Diego de los Rios on behalf of the Spanish Government and the Negros Republic led by Gen. Aniceto Lacson-Presidente and Gen. Juan Araneta-Delegate of War.

-Nov. 17, 1898: In Sta. Barbara, Iloilo Gen. Martin Delgado declared the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas and Mindanao. This was later replaced by a Politico-Military Government on November 23, 1898, composed only of the Visayas.

The leaders preferred instead a federal arrangement composed of - Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao as a logical substitute because of its indigenous elements.

Earlier, Martin Delgado together with Quintin Salas, Pedro Monteclaro and Adriano Hernandez led the Volunteer Battalion of ilonggo contingents under the Spaniards who fought against the army of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in Cavite and Pampanga. These military expeditions were mostly financed by ilonggo industrialist and Jaro Gobernadorcillo Don Eugenio Lopez y Jalandoni and shipping magnate Don Felix de la Rama of Parian, now Molo.

This was before the "Comite Conspirador" was formed in Molo, Iloilo on March 18, 1898 that served as the nucleus of the Ilonggo Revolutionary Movement.

-Dec. 2, 1898: With the merger of the Independent Republic of Negros and the Cantonal Government of Bohol (established in August-1898) the Panay government, based in Iloilo was renamed Federal Republic of the Visayas, patterned after the U.S. Federal and Cantonal government of the Swiss Confederation.

Romblon has always been a part of Capiz in Panay Island since 1818 and continued to be so, until the end of the Spanish rule in 1898. Gen. Macario Diego de Dias, led the Visayan Revolucionarios in Romblon.

Since Panay Island Commanding General and Chief-Expeditionary Forces in the Visayas -Gen. Pablo S. Araneta sent the brothers, Colonels Eduardo and Emilio Esteban in other areas to negotiate with local revolucionarios --perhaps more Provinces must have joined in this Visayan Confederation.

-Dec. 23, 1898: Governor-General Don Diego de los Rios, last duly constituted authority of Spain in the archipelago, formally surrendered to the Federal Republic of the Visayas thru Iloilo "Alcalde" Jose Ma. Gay.

-Dec. 24, 1898: The Spanish Governor-General --head of the Spanish Empire in Asia evacuated for Zamboanga together with his entourage on their way home to Spain.

-Dec. 25, 1898: Following the departure of the Spaniards, Gen. Martin Delgado (Gral-en-Gefe) and the Revolucionarios made a triumphal entry into the City of Iloilo with victorious parade to Plaza Alfonso XII which they renamed "Plaza Libertad"--after the declaration of the Federal Republic of the Visayas, a free and independent sovereign nation.

-Jan. 21, 1899: Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the Malolos Republic with a Constitution drafted by ilonggo Gregorio Araneta-Secretary General and other illustrados of the Malolos Congress.

-Jan. 23, 1899: The First Philippine Republic with Emilio Aguinaldo as President was formally inaugurated and the Constitution ratified in Malolos, Bulacan. He was later captured by the American forces in Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901.

The last President of Gen. Aguinaldo's government, Generalisimo Macario Sakay fought openly under the banner of the "Katagalugan Republic" until he was betrayed, arrested and on September 13, 1907 hanged to death under the Brigandage Act by the imperialist invaders.

-April 11, 1899: The Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War, was officially consummated after ratification by the U.S. Senate; thus, became legal and internationally binding only at this point in time. This war that our newly established independent Visayan Republic based in Iloilo has no part whatsoever.

Therefore, there is no legal basis --a diplomatic "faux pas" to include our Visayan territories in the Treaty of Paris; since we were by then already a free and sovereign Nation by virtue of Spain's formal surrender nor were we under the authority and jurisdiction of Aguinaldo's government in Luzon --who won several encounters and a few battles but never the war against Spain.

Ironically, we always hear and read more the exploits of these losers in our history books rather than the victorious saga of Visayan patriots and heroes of the Philippine Revolution..

Be that as it may, since we were vanquished nonetheless --the Federal Republic of the Visayas should at least share the historical status comparable to other sovereign nations; such as: Hawaii, Cuba and the Mexican provinces of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California who lost fighting a war against the superior U.S. forces. And NOT SOLD as a bounty thru a peace treaty, as in the case of Puerto Rico, West Indies, Guam and the rest.

-Dec. 25, 2005: The birth of the Ilonggo Nation Movement. A group initially organized via cyberspace in a bold attempt to revive a glorious past and noble heritage --that had been lost in the sands of time.

"Sa Federalismo, hilway kita magpasad kinaugalingon nga kasugu-an, labi na ang pag-amlig sg aton hambalandok kag pagdampig sg aton duna' nga manggad"

(With federalism, we could freely enact our own laws --especially to preserve our native languages and to protect our natural resources)

For comments: Send email to:

(Ni: Agurang Omong - Julio 13, 2007)

In December 27, 1898 - A few days after Spain's formal surrender and the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo became independent; thus, achieved the status as Sovereign Nation ---a 3,000-strong American Military Force led by Gen. Marcus Henry Miller arrived in four US warships (USS: Baltimore-Boston- Concord & Petrel) to Iloilo harbor in Fort San Pedro to demand the surrender of the City.

Several negotiations were made, but the Ilonggos vehemently refused to surrender and stood their ground.

In February 14, 1899 - After about a week of continued Naval bombardment --American troops led by Gen. Robert Hughes landed at Fort San Pedro in Iloilo and took the City by storm. Thus, began another ilonggo war --this time against American invaders.

(Excerpted from: The Philippine-American War as Race War; by Paul A. Kramer)
"...This point was also made at Senate hearings in 1902, when General Hughes described the burning of entire towns by advancing U.S. troops as a means of "punishment, " ---U.S Senator Rawlins inquired: "But is that within the ordinary rules of civilized warfare?" General Hughes replied succinctly: "These people are not civilized."

Gen. Robert Hughes admitted he ordered the burning of villages and murder of women and children but he reasoned out that his victims were "not civilized." Describing the Filipinos in racist terms as "Chinese half-breeds" ..."

Sa Ciudad sang Iloilo, may ara kita dira subong isa ka Barangay and a main Street very near PLaza Libertad going to Fort San Pedro, named in honor of this American Military Officer: Barangay Gen. Robert Hughes & the Gen. Robert Hughes Street.

Hamak Mo Ran Banwa!!!
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*Message from the Association of Ilonggos-Metropolit an Washington D.C.(AIM) Inc.
(By: Zenaida "Zeny" Alimon-Tabligan - AIM, INC. President)

Hello Everyone;

WE MADE IT!!!!!!

Our Atlantic City trip netted us with a WHOOPING $1,000.00 that would go towards our Scholarship Project. We had a real good time! Thanks to those who came-we couldn't have made it without you!!

Special mention to the following: to Noemi Piccio who stood and stayed up late with me to prepare the sandwiches and snacks for the trip-to my son Rico and wife Sheila who came on a short notice when I asked for SOS preparing the snacks, and to Ryan who has to get up early to take me to the Bus Parking Lot and carry those heavy coolers full of soda and bottled water.

My thanks also to Nestor and Dr. Willie Camina, Marilu Araneta and Melinda Quizan for donating prizes for our bingo winners.

Of course the following members came and their presence helped fill up the total bus capacity; Jim and Tess Taylor ( Thanks Jim, for being so handy with the bus DVD player, the movie made our trip even more enjoyable), Lina Divinagracia, Amy Garcia, Noemi Piccio, Nestor and Dr. Willie Camina, Marilu Araneta and son Joal and Daughter-in- law Frances, Marlyn Buchanan and Fausto Laris.

My heartfelt gratitude to most of my personal friends who made up most of the 54 exciting participants! Most of them don't want to be left out once we'll have another trip in the future-which most possibly will be by this fall. We received one $100.00 donation from one of them out of his winnings from the casino and the Bus Driver George, gave back $25.00 from his tips. We were short of three people out of the confirmed passengers of 57-the total bus capacity (One couple came late for the bus, and one got sick). If anyone of you will be interested, we'll probably have another trip this coming September, just let me know.


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Cesar Pineda, husband of Merci Acap-Pineda (AIM, Inc. Assistant Treasurer), died this morning at the Washington Hospital Center. He is survived by his wife Merci, and two sons, Francis and JP Pineda.

Please include the Pineda Family in your prayers. May they find solace and consolation with the thought that we are with them in their hour of sorrow.

Details on the viewing and interment will be announced later. If you want to send personal condolences to the family, the phone number is: (301)749-7133.
Home address is: 7502 Oxon Hill Road, Oxon Hill, MD 20705

Thank you.
Zeny (For AIM, Inc.)
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*Message from The Locsin Clan in Cyberspace:
(By: Rose Martirez-Mijares)

I just got back from Iloilo. So I am just scanning thru my mail. From what I ahve gleaned... just a side comment on the Trenas. Jerry is the first cousin of my first cousin, Dulce Hervas Zulueta. His mother and her mom are sisters. Dulce and I are from the Locsin Montelibano Sian generation. Incidentally I was able to research our genealogy while there but I will share that with you another time.
Also, Dulce's mom, Julia Perez Hervas has just died. Please pray for the eternal repose of her soul.

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