Ang Republika Federal sg Kabisay-an (The Federal Republic of the Visayas)

Historical Facts obviously omitted or deliberately hidden in our School History Books
(Source: History Reborn"The Federal Republic of the Visayas" -by: dinggol a.divinagracia*June 12, 2007)

*That Spain had already formally surrendered to the Federal Republic of the Visayas even before Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed Philippine President in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899. That our Independent Visayan Republic, had never been under the authority and jurisdiction of Aguinaldo's "Katagalogan" Republic in Luzon.

excerpted: "...A paper written by Jose Manuel Velmonte, a research associate at the UP Third World Studies Center, found that the Visayan revolutionary elites not only had sophisticated political ideas but also resented attempts by Malolos to assert its authority. A Tagalog military expedition sent by Malolos to Panay to assert its presence was met with hostility. The Luzon force led by Generals Ananias Diocno and Leandro Fullon was regarded by the Visayan revolutionaries, led by the Visayan supremo, Gen. Martin Delgado, as an ''invasion'' force ..." (Source: Inquirer-1999- 06-13 "View of revolt in provinces spurs revision" By: Amando Doronila)

According to Dr. Luis C.Dery, an eminent Filipino Scholar: "Expounding the extent of Aguinaldo's Philippine Army; the Bangsamoro nation's Mindanao, Sulu, and the rest of its islands never fell under Aguinaldo's politico-military control and sovereignty. In fact as late as August 1898 much of northern Luzon, southern Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao remained outside of the control of Aguinaldo's Republic. Thus, several military expeditions were sent to these places to bring' them to recognize the First Philippine Republic."

*That the 1898 Treaty of Paris preliminaries, should not have included territories of the sovereign "Visayan Nation"; the confederation of both the Central and Western Visayas Cantonal Governments by virtue of Spain's formal surrender prior to this U.S. and Spain treaty of peace (Paris) and the $20-million buy-out. Spain had no more legal rights to sell. In legal parlance "nemodat quod non habet” -meaning “you cannot give what is not yours”.

This diplomatic "Faux pas" that was supposed to be officially consummated and became legal and internationally binding only on APRIL 11, 1899 should, or rather must be rectified.
*June 12, 1898 -Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite --but never won the war against Spain, as explained in the infamous betrayal --the "Mock Battle of Manila of August 13, 1898".

*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)

excerpted: "...These two nations, from a purely legal point of view, are COMPLETELY LEGITIMATE UNTIL TODAY. This could imply that the Manila-based Tagalista-oriented Unitarian central government of the Philippines in the Visayas and Mindanao is an Occupational Government, that ultimately originated from an invalid Treaty of Paris...."

Dr. Jose P. Dacudao; National President -Save Our Languages thru Federalism Foundation (SOLFED), Inc.

*July 4, 1946 -The United States of America granted Philippine Independence on a silver platter with strings attached.

"True Independence could never be just self-proclaimed nor bestowed upon, it has to be won and duly achieved with dignity" -- dinggol araneta divinagracia (Founder: Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network ..Dec. 25, 2005)

*A lover of nature and reform activities by profession; a genealogist and environmentalist by avocation. A Cooperative Movement advocate, history buff and an amateur "newbie" writer)

"It is rather speculative as it is without basis of history if we mean of "history" is that which had been written for us by the "tutas" or lackeys of our colonial and imperial masters.." -- Benjie Evicner Estuche (INM Co-Founder)

The Cooperative Movement-"It is not the best way, it is the onlyway"..
Join the Last Laugh with us!

*When Christopher Columbus said that the world is round, people asked -What? and then they laughed.

*When the Wright brothers said they'll fly and soar the skies, people asked -How? and then they laughed.

*When Jules Verne wrote someday man could travel below the seven seas and shall walk on the moon, people asked - When? and then they laughed.

*When John the Baptist prophesied the coming of the Messiah, people asked -Who? and then they laughed.

*When the Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network announced its mission and vision, people did not even bother to ask, What? How? When? or Who? --They just laughed and laughed. *People are still laughing, ...but the laughter is fading!

ang inyo alagad... sa guihapon ...dinggol a. divinagracia~~~

email address:

To join! As a start, visit FACEBOOK: Ilonggo Nation Movement website .. (Non-ilonggos who share our advocacy are welcome)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)

"ACTA DE CAPITULACION~1898" (The Formal Surrender Document)
*Nov. 6 & Dec. 23, 1898 -Spain formally surrendered to both; the Negros Republic that merged (Dec. 2, 1898) with the Federal Republic of the Visayas based in Iloilo (respectively)
Ergo! we won our battle-scarred freedom and legitimate independence and became a sovereign nation. The "First" Republic in the whole of Asia, but was nipped-in-the bud by the ugly Americans. A diplomatic faux pas, a political blunder and a travesty of history! --dinggol.d~~~


Claim Your Birth Right!

*Estado Federal de Bisayas*

*Ilonggo Nation Movement (INM) Global Network, precursor of the Ilonggo Nation Global Federation*

“To appreciate where you are now, you should know where you came from.”

============ ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= ========

Friday, June 09, 2006

(By: dinggol a. divinagracia- Dec.25, 2005)


In observance of the 107th anniversary of the formal surrender of Spain to the ilonggo revolutionarios at Plaza Libertad in Iloilo City on December 25, 1898; the Foundation Day celebration of the Ilonggo Nation Movement today in Clinton, Michigan, USA; and the birthday of Jesus Christ " Our Lord and Redeemer": this article is written as a tribute to the ilonggos, a proud and deeply religious people with rich and noble heritage.

Mga Kasimanwa:

The Ilonggo Nation of Western Visayas existed since 1214 up to the early 1900's. It had a seperate and distinct political set-up; its own culture, ethnic languages and traditions; history and aspirations. A proud race of noble heritage.

The Spaniards who colonized the archipelago for about 330 years were defeated and formally surrendered to the heroic ilonggo "Nation" revolutionarios at Bacolod Plaza in Negros Occidental on November 6, 1898 and at Plaza Libertad in Iloilo City on December 25, 1898.

Thus, supposed to signal the end of foreign sovereignty and domination.

Unfortunately, however, our leaders in the Federal Republic of the Visayas in Panay and in the Independent Federal Negros Republic had decided to merge our "Ilonggo Nation" with that of General Emilio Aguinaldo of Cavite to form a Revolutionary Government of the Philippines.

On Jan. 23,1899 saw the birth of the “First Filipino Republic” after its inauguration in Malolos, Bulacan. The first in Asia! The rest is history..

The “Ilonggo Nation Movement” with it's Banwa_Mo eNews bulletin .. a group organized in a bold attempt to resurrect our glorious past; redeem the lost prestige of the Ilonggos and hopefully create a force to reckon with; that perhaps, might deter perpetuators of the maladies that now confronts our people.

Thanks to the wonders of modern technology, we shall wage this war not in the fields of battle but in cyberspace. The adversaries: not foreign invaders who trampled our sacred shores but a callous and undisciplined (ourselves included) society of apathy and injustice.

The main objective: to instill awareness worldwide; win the hearts and minds of ilonggos of today and generations to come; so that they, may be able to participate in the war against dismal poverty and landlessness due to greed of the oligarchy (the modern day ilustrados); despair and hopelessness due to graft and corruption in all levels of government; and the existence of the well entrenched Political Dynasties "Psuedo Royalties" of traditional politicians who controls "Perlas ng Silanganan" from "Katigulangan Kag Kaapohan"; that's the new "KKK" for you...

Bugtaw na Banwa! .. Pass this on! .. Madamo guid nga salamat!!

Allow me to rectify some misconception on the above-article:

Excerpt from: The Ilonggo "Nation" Movement INTRODUCTION

"....Unfortunately, however, our leaders in the Federal Republic of the Visayas in Panay and in the Independent Federal Negros Republic had decided to merge our "Ilonggo Nation" with that of General Emilio Aguinaldo of Cavite to form a Revolutionary Government of the Philippines

On Jan. 23,1899 saw the birth of the “First Filipino Republic” after its inauguration in Malolos, Bulacan. The first in Asia! The rest is history....."
After a thorough consideration, I must admit...I stand corrected on the above erroneous statement, in view of the following, viz:
1) The Philippine-American War was not of a national character, having been limited to certain areas in Luzon and the Visayas, and was but endemic in nature in Mindanao.
2) In November 5, 1898 When Gen.Juan Araneta and Gen. Aniceto Lacson proclaimed in Bago, Negros Island the Independent Federal Negros Republic and when they accepted the formal surrender of Spain the next day...they did so not for and in behalf of the Aguinaldo's Republic.
3) In November 17, 1898 - Gen. Martin Delgado proclaimed at Sta. Barbara, Iloilo the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas and Mindanao. This was later changed by the Iloilo elite to Federal Republic of the Visayas since they did not want to recognize the supremacy of Aguinaldo and the Tagalogs. The Ilonggo Leaders, likewise, accepted the formal surrender of Spain on December 25, 1898 not for and in behalf of Aguinaldo's Government.
4) According to Dr. Luis C.Dery, an eminent Filipino Scholar: Expounding the extent of Aguinaldo's Philippine Army; the Bangsamoro nation's Mindanao, Sulu, and the rest of its islands never fell under Aguinaldo's politico-military control and sovereignty.

In fact as late as August 1898 much of northern Luzon, southern Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao remained outside of the control of Aguinaldo's Republic. Thus, several military expeditions were sent to these places to bring' them to recognize the First Philippine Republic.
5) Ilonggo Katipuneros in Manila who personally joined Aguinaldo's Government and later directed to go back to their respective provinces; such as Gen. Leandro Locsin Fullon of Antique, Candido Iban and Francisco del Castillo of Aklan were not able to persuade the local leaders to submit to Aguinaldo's authority. Although they fought side by side for the same cause and under one flag with a star emblem of the Visayas Republic.
6) From: Professor Philip Khalid of Bacolod City - Mike Luz, formerly Undersecretary, Dept. of Education, claimed we do not share the same history. It is coming out only now that, not all the provinces who fought against Spain, were aligned with Aguinaldo.

There is even now an interpretation that the Katipuneros were only interested in a Tagalog Republic.

Evidently so, since Generalisimo Macario Sakay the last who succeded the reign of the Katipuneros as President fought openly under the banner of the Katagalugan Republic.
My apologies to our forebears..

Sa guihapon...dinggol.. (1/15/2006)


Perry Diaz (INM Banwa_Mo:Sacramento-CA-USA Cyberzone) said...

My Groups | BALITA-USA Main Page

Dear Readers,

The following are comments on the article "The Ilonggo 'Nation' Movement" authored by Dinggol A. Divinagracia. Feel free to comment. The original article is posted below for your reference.

All the best,
Dear Perry,

Thank you for posting the article of the Ilongo Nation Movement by Dingol Divinagracia. The role of the Ilongos of Panay Island in our nation's history had been bastardized. I suspected all along that while our history books was written, it was influenced by the Tagalogs, former President Manuel Quezon, rather than Former President Sergio Osmena Sr., a Visayan.

The leaders in Panay agreed to join with Aguinaldo, since Panay was a thriving center of Commerce and Culture, as a matter of fact, one of the Stars in the Philippine Flag represented Panay and the two others were for Luzon and Mindanao. Panay is self sustaining because of it's rich natural resources and the Port of Iloilo is typhoon free,one of the best in the country, considering that it is protected by the Island of Guimaras. Panay had been the rice granary of the Philippines, and Sugar and Coconut had been it's major export products. The BARONG FILIPINO was an invention of the Ilongo's in the district of Arevalo and Molo. The first millionaire's row was in the district of Jaro, Iloilo City, and the first Airline, the first Shipping Company was founded in Iloilo. If we have to correct our history books, I sugggest that the role of Panay (Nation) must be included. It must be an interesting topic, and the Ilongos must have an input in correcting our history. Maybe, our friends in the Filipino American National Historical Society (FAHNS) can help.

I wish you all a Happy New Year.

Ernesto M. Gange
Ilongo from Guimaras

Thanks for the courage. Leaders like are needed in this times. While there is always the desire for change with shared sentiment but perhaps different approach your view is certainly one among that which Filipinos can realistically hope for in the event deceptive governance will not realize it has to change ways. On this similar issues there are flowing streams that can be part of an unstoppable raging river of peaceful reforms badly needed before Philippine freedom would perish.

More power to you and may you and yuour loved ones have a blessed, prosperous and healthy new years ahead.

Joe Balmadrid
Chicago, IL
Hi Perry,
Another reason why the Philippines will never prosper as a nation of united Filipinos!!

Perhaps, it is the influence of the Spanish that made inhabitants of "Las Islas de Filipinas" overzealous about their respective islands to the point of feeling superior over other islanders!!


IlONGGO "NATION" MOVEMENT should be must-reading for all Pinoys in the context that Pinoys belong to
intergral tribal groupings in the continuing search for unity.

Melchizedek Maraon Solis --- also an Ilonggo

Rawley Soberano said...

Date: Fri, 30 Dec 2005 11:26:00 EST
Subject: Re: The Ilonggo "Nation" Movement

WHAT A BIG WASTE OF TIME! What is the purpose of this big hoopla for nothing? What do you expect to make of it! Let's move on and don't look back!

Rawley Soberano
Hi! Rawley:

Thanks for sharing your personal opinion.

I'm forwarding to you feedbacks thru BALITA-USA and still processing more in just these few days.

Correct me if I am wrong, you are contented with what's happening back home, right?

By the way, have you heard the old wise ilonggo proverb,"Ang indi kahibalo mag lantaw sang iya gin halinan; indi man maka-abot sa iya kaladto-an" ?

Happy New Year!


Felipe B. Jocson said...

Puede ko ka pasakop sa ini nga grupo?

My name is Felipe B. Jocson. I am a tumandok of Bacolod City. I was invited here by my brother to join the group.

For now, i am presently living in Bacolod City with my family.

I am an Architect by Profession and presently managing our small family business related to glass and aluminum works. It is an honor to be a member here if the group's aknowledgement permit me to.

Thank you again and more power to all. Sa liwat madamo gid nga salamat kag mabuhay kita tanan!!!!
Hi! Felipe:

You are most Welcome. We are likewise, honored to have a young professional like you participating in our mission and sharing our vision for an Ilonggo Nation and hopefully a better Philippines.

God bless..


Rawley Soberano said... wrote:

Of course I am not happy with what is going on in RP. But there is nothing you can do about it when enemies of democracy can threaten the security of the republic and get a slap in the wrist when their overtures do not succeed.

Unless they arrest, jail and hang or shoot before a firing squad these culprits/criminals, the country has no future. The leadership has no balls. Wala itlog! Corruption is now an institution in RP.


Hi! Rawley:

Thanks for the clarification. Now I know we share the same sentiments. The INM is not contended just watching and waiting for the inevitable to happen. Instead of cursing the darkness, we have decided to light a candle even how small.

The propaganda movement of yesteryears, founded by our very own Graciano Lopez Jaena, notwithstanding difficulties of info dissemination ignited the spark that changed Filipino history.

We frown of a bloody solution, at the moment. Because with the advent of modern technology, we believe new approaches and ideas perhaps, might "pop-out" in cyberspace very soon.

At least, we have taken the first step and we invite you to join us.


FreddyPanes(INM-Banwa_Mo: PhiladelphiaUSA Cyberzone) said... wrote:

Hello.... Salamat guid for a wonderfully written article about our beloved province Iloilo. Why are there no Ilonggo associations in our area? We have the Ilocanos, Bohol, Sulu-Mindanao, Tarlac, Ank Ti Batak, Marinduquenos, Quezonians, Batanguenos.... but no Ilonggo Association. I think that in our area we could be the liveliest, the loudest and the most-fun bunch if we have one.

Freddy Panes
CSP Digital Color Printing
Hi! Freddy:

Ti ma-ayo man kami diri, naga ting-nguha sang kina wala. Thanks for your kind reaction. By the way, we have the ASSOCIATION OF ILONGGOS OF METRO- POLITAN WASHINGTON D.C.(AIM), INC. which covers the Nations Capital plus the States of Maryland and Virginia. Inviting you to visit AIM Website at:

Happy New Year!

keep in touch.. dinggol

Pearl Garganera Gauzon said...

Date: Thu, 12 Jan 2006 01:16:29 -0800 (PST)
From: pearl garganera gauzon

my only comment is in the choice of words "iloilo nation." what about the Philippine plede of allegiance which says "one nation indivisible." certainly by nation is meant the philippines. now if one describes iloilo as a nation, doesn't that run in contravention with the pledge of allegiance.

mga kasimanwa, i, for one, am an avid seeker of ways to arrive at a seachange. but, with all due respect, this iloilo nation movement is a misnomer.
Hi! Pearl:

That's a very keen sense of observation. Thanks for your comment. But by "Nation" we refer here the simple meaning in the dictionary; e.i Group, aggregation; a tribe or federation of tribes (as Confederation of Madja-as) and not the Thesaurus version.
Moreover, the Bangsa Moro and Cordillera exist today as a "Nation" within the territorial boundaries of the Philippines.

As to the pledge of allegiance, i'm sure you are aware that even in the US "One Nation under God" might be deleted from theirs.

You stated" "I, for one, am an avid seeker of ways to arrive at a seachange"; we believe you are, and we are cordially inviting you to join and share with us. Together, perhaps, we might be able to reach faster our mutual destination.

Sincerely... dinggol..

BGen.M.H.Siscar (INM-Banwa_Mo: Bulacan Ph. Cyberzone) said...

Jan 2006 22:48:42 -0800 (PST)
From: michelangelo siscar
Subject: Re: Joining Banwa Mo: Ilonggo Nation Movement

Dear Organizer,

All information recently forwarded the last few hours had been understood, digested and internalized. God Bless.

We will need to inlist indeed all loving Ilonggos to help the Province of Iloilo rise from where it is stuck today.

More Ilonggos are born, the schools are getting crowded, the streets are getting constricted with the rising and never-ending volume of vehicles running in the city and nearby towns. And yet the ambience around the province is still one that is slow, sleepy and laggard. Seemingly everyone loves to live a very simple life such as selling peanuts, grinding peanuts into butter, selling pinasugbo and biscocho, and all other small things that earn very little like selling bananas and pandesal. But the surprising thing is that Ilonggos have very simple joy, happiness and satisfaction. And for as long as they can play mahjong and drink Tanduay and tuba every day, they are already the happiest in the country.

Who will wake these people up? (To be continued...Thanks)

BGen Michelangelo H. Siscar

dinggol a. divinagracia said...

Welcome aboard!!!

We welcome with PRIDE! NESTOR ORTIZ SULPICO, the humble ilonggo who gained international fame by returning rare black pearls worth about $70,000 left by passenger in his taxi cab in New York last year.

Dubbed by the American mainstrean media as the "Honest Cab Driver of New York" and in the Philippines as "Bagong Bayani ng Pilipinas", Nestor of Leganes, Iloilo made all Filipinos proud and "Taas nuo" to the whole world at the time when we needed it most.

(INM Moderator)

Dr.JoseDacudao (INM-Banwa_Mo: Northern Mindanao Ph.Cyberzone) said...

I am Dr. Jose P. Dacudao, a
Neurosurgeon practicing in Butuan.

I also happen to be an Ilonggo, and the President of Save Our Languages Through Federalism (SOLFED). The SOLFED Butuan chapter has recently created a Butuanon syllabus in our efforts to protect the Butuanon language and the ancient Butuanon people that it defines from dying out. We need all the help we can get.....

Regarding "The Ilonggo 'Nation' Movement": It's true that the Ilonggos of Panay declared a Federal Republic of Visayas in 1898. My sources tell me that the Spanish Government until today recognizes this Republic as valid (I still have to confirm this). The
Ilonggos in Negros also declared Independence at this time.

We used to be a cultured, dignified, and proud people, and there used to be a time when being an Ilonggo meant something. Today, the new picture of Ilonggos is that of maids, GROs, construction workers, and waiters. Our beautifully sing-song language,
tailor fitted to traditional public poetical oratories
called 'binalaybay's, is now the epitome of the lowly probinsyano accent and a butt of jokes.

Currently, there is a strong movement for Federalism in Western Visayas. SOLFED is in the thick of it.

Could you instruct me on how to contact these Ilonggos? I would like very much to contact them.
Thinking how low Ilonggos have fallen pains me. I am glad that some of my countrymen are trying to regain some of our lost dignity.

Dr.Jose Dacudao(INM-Banwa_Mo:Northern Mindanao Ph.Cyberzone) said...

Maayong adlaw,

Si Dr. Jose P. Dacudao ako. Isa ako ka Ilonggo. Handum ko nga mapahilway ang aton nga banwa sa Manila.

Ako man ang National President sang 'Save Our Languages Through Federalism, Inc' (SOLFED).

Luyag ko tani mangilala sa inyo.

Joey Dacudao
Hi! Joey:

Baw! ma-ayo guid kay nag salig kag nag join ka man sa amon grupo. Naga salig man ako nga we might have something in common kag handum para sa ka ayohan indi lamang sang aton doug sa Western Visayas kundi labi na guid para sa bug-os nga pungsod Pilipinas.

We need people like you who are not afraid to be in the open; expose their identity,to propagate their ideas and standy by their convictions, come what may.

Ang Ilonggo Nation Movement, sa sulod pa lamang sang 36 ka adlaw, may ara na kita 38 ka regular members(those willing to contribute articles, etc). This includes six members who are group leaders; editors and/or moderators of their own groups.

Presently, we are transmitting copies of INM-Banwa_Mo eNews Bulletin to about 923 enthusiastic friends and relatives worldwide.

Laban sini iya naga hulat pa sa baha, naga "wait and see", before formally registering.

Sa liwat, salamat for joining us!

Sa guihapon....dinggol..

Nathanael John Duenas said...

The Katilingaban sa Kaayuhan sang Komonidad (KKK) was also organized in 1977 at Pavia, Iloilo. This hometown effort has brought the needed change and mindset of the generations that brought about the reforms and development of the town of Pavia.

Although unconsciously we were not aware at that time that our ancestral leadership has established within the Visayan Nation a federation of island states which is slowly awakening to once again reclaim our nearing to extinction cultural distinction.

Mabuhay anf Bagong Katipunan!